Chicken pox and strep throat-

Chickenpox in children is common and usually follows a mild and self-limiting if somewhat itchy course. After an incubation period of days the first signs of illness are viral prodrome, mild pyrexia, and the classic cropping vesicular rash; the pyrexia is typically mild o C and lasts days. In otherwise healthy children the most common complication of chickenpox is secondary bacterial skin infection, typically caused by scratching lesions. Children may be well in themselves if the infection is superficial; if they become more unwell this raises the suspicion of a more serious or invasive bacterial infection. Around a third of children admitted to hospital with chickenpox have secondary skin infection, some of whom develop invasive infections such as pneumonia, osteomyelitis and septicaemia.

Chicken pox and strep throat

The rash itself is uncomfortable, but is not contagious. Gershon AA She underwent surgical exploration for possible necrotizing fasciitis and subsequently received a total fasciotomy of her left arm. It is recommended for: All healthy children 12 months of age and older who have not had Chicke. Individual CCCs should determine whether they should have toy "food" based on their ability to enforce this standard.

Black publisher that own ebony magazine. When to Call for Chickenpox

What is the cure for pimples on back and Chicken pox and strep throat As Figure 1 shows for Chicago, the time-series patterns of the two epidemics are so close to each other in timing, and often in amplitude, that correlations do not adequately describe the Chicken pox and strep throat. This was tested with a non-parametric Kolmogorov—Smirnov Cuicken test for statistical equality of the cumulative distribution functions. Published online Jul Table 5 gives a different view of the Sex wrapped in plastic timing tnroat the epidemic abd as it shows the weeks, on average, from towhen peaks and nadirs occur for both epidemics in the four cities. It is also a good idea because there are some healing properties in these lozenges which can also help speed up the recovery. Figure 5. Your e-mail :. Hi, I had a few small pimples on my back and arm that I popped and disinfected. The lesions on the skin itch like crazy after a day or so. Gazette des Hopitaux Civils et Militaires29 Junevol. Are lumps on the chest and breast associated with hiatus hernia? Regression models have the additional advantage over recursive or time-series models in that the interpretation of thraot is well understood. As the results will show, both diseases showed a strongly seasonal forcing effect from to Chicen, in fact, had almost identical seasonal patterns except for amplitude.

Never pleasant.

  • By proceeding, I accept the Terms and Conditions.
  • The aim of the research is to investigate the historical relationship between varicella and Streptococcus pyogenes infections.
  • A number of health challenges which have been facing people daily, which are almost always unexpected.
  • Chickenpox, or varicella, is one of those childhood viral diseases that we used to hope everybody would catch in childhood before we had the vaccine.
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Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it. Financial assistance for medically necessary services is based on family income and hospital resources and is provided to children under age 21 whose primary residence is in Washington, Alaska, Montana or Idaho.

Skip to nav Skip to content. Conditions All Conditions A to Z. Is this your child's symptom? A rash all over the body caused by the chickenpox virus.

The chickenpox rash starts as small red bumps. The bumps change to blisters or pimples. The bumps change to open sores, and finally they scab over. A doctor has told you that your child has chickenpox. Or your child had close contact with another person who has it or shingles. The contact should be days earlier. Symptoms of Chickenpox Chickenpox starts with some small water blisters or pimples on the head and trunk. Chickenpox progress within 24 hours through the next 5 stages: Small red bumps Thin-walled water blisters Cloudy blisters Open sores, and finally Dry brown crusts.

Rash is all over the body. Most often, starts on the head and back. Repeated crops of new chickenpox keep appearing for 4 to 5 days. Therefore, all 5 stages are present at same time. Sores ulcers can also occur in the mouth, on eyelids, and on genitals. Fever is most often present. The more the rash, the higher the fever. Known contact to a child with chickenpox or shingles 10 - 21 days earlier Main related problems: skin infections from scratching.

Cause of Chickenpox Chickenpox is caused by a virus. It is called Varicella. Chickenpox can be prevented by getting this vaccine against this virus. Examples are: sickle cell disease, HIV, cancer, organ transplant, taking oral steroids. Chronic skin disease such as eczema Chronic lung disease such as cystic fibrosis Your child looks or acts very sick You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent Call Doctor Within 24 Hours Age less than 1 year old Teen 13 years or older has chickenpox Been near to person with chickenpox or shingles in last 5 days.

Also, healthy person who never had a chickenpox vaccine. Bellevue Everett Federal Way Seattle. Should your child see a doctor? All Symptoms. Accept All Cookies.

Another limitation is the lack of a sound explanatory model for scarlet fever epidemics that would account for seasonality, magnitude, and the periodicity of cycles. The sores can get infected with the Group A Strep germ that causes strep throat, rheumatic fever, etc. Regression models are used to estimate the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever after controlling for seasonal forcing. Similarly, Eichhorst 13 writes that varicella epidemics often follow epidemics of measles or scarlet fever, or precede them, or come at the same time. The User accepted the expert's answer Ask a Pediatrician. For example, increased virulence of influenza strains may be related to susceptibility to bacterial co-infections. Nevertheless, this research finds a stronger association between varicella and scarlet fever than seen in previous research.

Chicken pox and strep throat

Chicken pox and strep throat

Chicken pox and strep throat

Chicken pox and strep throat

Chicken pox and strep throat. Introduction

You can then have all the joys, benefits and fruits that those great results bring you. Should anyone ever ignore these 5 tips, prepare for much worse results and concurrently lower benefits.

If you want to learn more methods on how to cure this virus in only 3 days or less, be sure to click here to begin reading my e-book programs right away. I never knew that there is a pox throat? But for now I have enough knowledge about it. Thanks Stefan. Your email address will not be published. Listed below are tips on how to cure a Chicken Pox sore throat: 1. Suck On Throat Lozenges. Get Plenty Of Rest.

Juny Arnoza on at pm. Chary Fano Manango on at am. Dennise on at am. Just now, I know about Chicken Pox in throat. Weird, I may say. Submit a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Exclusive Free Report…. You are probably wondering, who is Stefan Hall and why can he help me cure the chicken pox for myself or my child? The truth is, I'm just a normal guy who suffered from the chicken pox years ago, both as a child and as an adult yes, you can get the chicken pox more than once.

On both occasions it was an extremely horrible experience for me. Like you, I wanted to find out how I could cure the chicken pox as fast as possible, in the safest way that I could. So I made it my mission to read everything, meet all the doctors, try all the remedies, and essentially become an expert on the chicken pox. After spending years researching everything there is to know about the chicken pox, I can tell you that I've figured out what works and what doesn't work to effectively cure the chicken pox.

And now I want to teach you everything I learned and spare you all the time, money and research that I had to go through to come up with the Fast Chicken Pox Cure. On this website, you'll find my Fast Chicken Pox Cure e-book program that will help you cure the chicken pox in only 3 days or less. You can read the e-book risk free and if it doesn't help you in any way, you can easily request a refund and get your money back.

The researchers speculate that high wheat prices increased malnutrition, making children more susceptible to infection for several years. Scarlet fever epidemics subsided after when wheat prices decreased.

But evolutionary change might have attenuated its virulence. A mathematical model for scarlet fever in Canada also found seasonal forcing and annual cycles in the period to , but in less-populated Western Canada epidemics came in 6-year cycles without seasonal forcing. In their classic epidemiological study, London and Yorke 22 estimate a model for varicella dynamics using average monthly cases reported in New York City from to They use ordinary differential delay equations to model the seasonal dynamic sinusoidally, and computer simulations of the model are consistent with the observed facts that there was a sharp rise in cases at the beginning of the school term and a rapid drop at the end of the school year, as predicted by the forcing model.

They also contend that cold weather increased contact rates and incidence. Aggregate varicella and scarlet fever case reports are currently available for several US cities, and the analysis includes Boston, Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia.

Reported cases of streptococcal sore throat are included in the totals with scarlet fever. Scarlet fever weekly case reports run from to , and varicella from to the 40th week of So, comparison of the two diseases is limited to the overlapping range of years to Within this period, some weeks are missing data, and some years have a 53rd week, but generally cases reported after the 52nd week are included in the first week of the next year.

Boston: Mean weekly reported scarlet fever and varicella cases and number of weeks without missing data. Chicago: Mean weekly reported scarlet fever and varicella cases and number of weeks without missing data. New York City: Mean weekly reported scarlet fever and varicella cases and number of weeks without missing data. Philadelphia: Mean weekly reported scarlet fever and varicella cases and number of weeks without missing data.

Because the number of scarlet fever and varicella cases rose exponentially as the epidemics peaked, the distribution of case data is highly skewed. To solve the problem, case data were transformed logarithmically for subsequent analysis. Graphical plots of the time series were fitted with negative exponential smoothing; that is, when estimating a given point, the weight given to other points decreases exponentially with horizontal distance from the estimated point.

Finally, incidence rates per , were calculated for each city for each year so that the cities could be compared. The annual population was estimated by linear interpolation of population data between the and censuses. The weekly public health data have no other information about the diseases and their victims, such as age and gender. The weekly data were analyzed first for correlations between varicella and scarlet fever and for cross-correlations in their time series.

As the results will show, both diseases showed a strongly seasonal forcing effect from to and, in fact, had almost identical seasonal patterns except for amplitude. Both diseases increased markedly about the time school started in the fall and continued through the school year before ebbing to their nadirs in late summer.

The analysis had to take this into account in order to estimate the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever independent of seasonal forcing. Based on other research, several models for a seasonal forcing pattern were considered as candidates for analysis. Frequently, a sinusoidal model has been used, but this can only describe general, recurring characteristics of epidemics and would not be adequate for estimation in a regression analysis. On the other hand, more detailed and accurate recursive models would demand more information about the population than is available, such as the age structure as in the Copenhagen study.

A recent study compared four time-series models in their ability to predict nine different infectious diseases, including recent scarlet fever epidemics. All the models did fairly well at estimating or predicting scarlet fever, with exponential smoothing the best; but for forecasting, regression was the best and ARIMA by far the worst.

The authors believe that nonlinear relationships in the scarlet fever time series inhibit successful use of ARIMA models. None of the models included covariates. In light of previous modeling efforts and to include varicella as a covariate in a model that takes seasonality into account, regression analysis was chosen for this analysis. Regression models have the additional advantage over recursive or time-series models in that the interpretation of covariates is well understood.

The goal of the analysis is to discern any association of varicella with scarlet fever apart from the simultaneous effects of seasonal forcing on both diseases and the fact that both have very similar annual cycles.

In other words, the analysis must control for seasonal forcing. Because the annual epidemics are very much alike, the empirical distribution of scarlet fever in an earlier or later year can be used to control for seasonal forcing in the year under analysis. So, weekly scarlet fever rates within a year were regressed with ordinary least squares OLS on two independent variables: the weekly varicella rate from that year and the weekly scarlet fever rate from another year, which is taken as the expected rate owing to seasonal forcing.

That is, the regression analysis was estimated with the heuristic model. More formally, the regression model for log scarlet fever SF rate and log varicella V rate at year t is. Two criteria were used to select years for analysis. First, the scarlet fever trends for each year in the regression model had to be statistically identical.

This was tested with a non-parametric Kolmogorov—Smirnov K-S test for statistical equality of the cumulative distribution functions. Also, scarlet fever and varicella epidemics were compared in years when scarlet fever incidence was relatively low. The purpose was to reduce the possible effects of missing independent variables in the regression model, which would be more of a problem in years with high scarlet fever incidence.

As the Copenhagen analysis showed, amplitude of incidence is not well explained by the forcing model. One case that met the criteria well was picked for each city, and New York City had two cases that fit the criteria especially well. This type of regression model presents some difficulties: 25 1 there may be multicollinearity between the independent variables because both diseases have very similar seasonal cycles; 2 there may be serial correlation in the dependent variable, which is common in a time series; and 3 the use of the lagged dependent variable as an independent variable can cause estimation bias.

Each of these situations must be considered when interpreting the results. The numbers of reported scarlet fever and varicella cases are positively correlated in every year in each city, ranging from 0. Over the period —, the correlation in each city is as follows: Boston 0. But this is not the whole story. As Figure 1 shows for Chicago, the time-series patterns of the two epidemics are so close to each other in timing, and often in amplitude, that correlations do not adequately describe the relationship.

Figure 2 shows the cross-correlation between scarlet fever and varicella in Chicago—a pattern that is typical of all four cities. The distribution of cross-correlation values is symmetrical over positive and negative lags of several weeks for each city.

Table 5 gives a different view of the relative timing of the epidemic cycles as it shows the weeks, on average, from to , when peaks and nadirs occur for both epidemics in the four cities. Peaks and nadirs were found by inspection of the empirical distributions.

Varicella precedes scarlet fever, on average, at the peak except for New York City where they occur at the same time. For example, varicella peaks in Boston in the first week of the year, on average, and scarlet fever in week There is also a high rate of varicella in week 53 for Philadelphia, but this seems to be a reporting or statistical anomaly, as there are only two 53rd weeks of reporting in Philadelphia. The timing of the nadirs is almost the same in all cities, with scarlet fever hitting its nadir in late summer just before varicella and just as school terms start.

However, when interpreting the timing of epidemics, be aware that the incubation period for varicella is 2 weeks or more versus 1—7 days for scarlet fever, and that there may be an additional delay of a week or more from diagnosis to public reporting. One can infer that when there is zero lag in the cross-correlation, it implies that varicella leads scarlet fever.

And the true nadirs of scarlet fever and varicella happen at about the same time and somewhat earlier than Table 5 indicates. In sum, cross-correlation analysis and the timing of peaks and nadirs support the hypothesis that varicella may have a causal relationship with scarlet fever.

Log reported scarlet fever and varicella cases by week: Chicago, —, with negative exponential smoothing solid lines.

Timing of peaks and nadirs by week for average case numbers of varicella and scarlet fever, —, by city. The regression analysis shows a strong association between varicella and scarlet fever rates when controlling for seasonal forcing, although caution about interpretation is warranted. Table 6 shows the full models estimated with both independent variables and then without the lagged scarlet fever term.

The solid lines in the figures represent negative exponential smoothing, as discussed earlier. The regression models are estimated with the rates per , population for comparison across cities. Coefficients for varicella in the full models are almost the same in Boston 0.

R2 varies from 0. Log reported scarlet fever and varicella cases by week: New York City, — Log reported scarlet fever and varicella cases by week: Philadelphia, — In this situation, the model predictions R 2 are correct but estimates of the coefficients may be unreliable or have excessive standard errors. However, high multicollinearity is only an issue in the two New York cases, and both cases were re-estimated without the lagged term.

The explanatory strength is reduced only slightly from the full model, and this also has the advantage of removing problems associated with the lagged dependent variable in the model.

It is reasonable to choose the varicella term over the lagged term because there is no assertion that the lagged term has a causal relationship with the dependent variable. In the other cities, the lagged value of the scarlet fever rate results in a negative bias in the estimate of its coefficient.

Despite this, the OLS estimate of the coefficient is consistent and considered the most appropriate estimator. A Durbin—Watson test indicates that all the cases except New York in are affected by serial correlation. This has the likely result of increasing the R 2 values while decreasing the estimated standard errors of the coefficients. When both independent variables are significant, as in Boston and Chicago, the logarithmic terms in the model imply a multiplicative effect on scarlet fever rate.

The regression analysis shows a strong relationship between varicella and scarlet fever. The model was designed to separate the endogenous seasonality of the scarlet fever epidemics from their relationship with varicella using a lagged independent variable that had the same cumulative distribution function as the dependent variable, within a margin of statistical error.

However, because of the very close correspondence between scarlet fever and varicella epidemics, it is hard to be certain that the models completely disentangle the varicella—scarlet fever relationship from their simultaneous seasonality.

And one cannot exclude the possibility of a reciprocal association between the two epidemics. One would have to know more about infections at the individual level to resolve the issue. The close connection of scarlet fever and varicella epidemics echoes the historical reports from the late 19th century.

Apart from the regression models, the synchronicity of the epidemics also points to the possibility of co-infections during their peak seasons. The two diseases affect the same school populations at the same time in an age cohort where most children will contract varicella, and the likelihood of a scarlet fever infection was usually greater than a varicella infection in this period.

The statistical analysis has a number of limitations. Foremost is the fact that data are only available for both diseases for 9 years in the four cities, and within that period, regression models cover only 5 of the 36 cases.

Models are further restricted to years with relatively low levels of scarlet fever incidence, and the models lack covariates that might account for changes in incidence rates over time or among cities.

Another limitation is the lack of a sound explanatory model for scarlet fever epidemics that would account for seasonality, magnitude, and the periodicity of cycles. Nevertheless, this research finds a stronger association between varicella and scarlet fever than seen in previous research. Within the limitations of the research, one can raise three points of discussion from the analysis: 1 the possibility of a causal relationship between varicella and scarlet fever, and why that might come about; 2 the possibility of co-infections of varicella and scarlet fever owing to the simultaneity of their annual epidemic cycles, and implications of that; and 3 the theory of seasonal forcing and whether it accounts for the close timing of the two disease cycles.

As to the first point, the historical review and the fact that varicella is a risk factor for invasive GAS infections support the inference that at least to a limited degree, varicella infections may increase the incidence of scarlet fever. The statistical analysis is consistent with this. But the degree of correlation in the four cities seems to be much stronger than historical evidence or recent data on invasive GAS infections would suggest. For example, in a causal relationship, one might expect to see a stronger correlation between the two diseases in the Copenhagen analysis, and historical observers would more likely have reported a causal relationship.

By comparison, there is much stronger historical evidence that measles is a specific risk factor for pertussis, which is supported well by statistical analysis using the Tycho data. For two diseases to have a causal connection, one should look to the factors they have in common. These may include, among other possibilities, age of victims, points of initial infection, season and method of transmission, and their methods of avoiding an immune response.

In fact, these match up for measles and pertussis and also for varicella and scarlet fever. The possibility of co-infection seems likely given the strong overlap of the annual epidemic cycles in the four cities and the fact that they affect children at about the same age through school contacts. Co-infections may account for some of the increased correlation and synchronicity of the two epidemics beyond a causal relationship.

In addition, people can be asymptomatic carriers of the streptococcus pathogen, further increasing its likely spread. The mechanisms and outcomes of co-infections are an important area of study. For example, increased virulence of influenza strains may be related to susceptibility to bacterial co-infections. The final point of discussion is the seasonality of the epidemics.

Although the connection to the school year seems obvious, this inference should be viewed cautiously. Other childhood diseases also had strong seasonality but at different times: polio peaking in late summer, diphtheria in the late fall, and measles in the spring. The close correspondence of scarlet fever and varicella is the exception.

Reviewing the topic of seasonality, Grassly and Fraser 38 conclude that it is a common, yet complex, phenomenon that is not well understood. Many factors can be involved. It would be difficult, for example, to rule out weather-related conditions in the explanation of seasonality seen here.

Sometimes, a comparative analysis of epidemics is revealing, as with Copenhagen and the American cities. The scarlet fever epidemics in these cities happened at roughly the same time in cities of similar size and climate, but the timing of seasonality is quite different in Copenhagen. Recent scarlet epidemics in China also show a different pattern of seasonal forcing with peaks in both June and December. And the amplitude of seasonal cycles in Copenhagen is not well explained by models based on school terms and student ages.

Grassly and Fraser further contend that the dynamics of seasonality can be affected by the interaction of pathogens with one another or by their effect on immune suppression. Such conditions, moreover, can modify the genetic diversity of pathogens with long-term implications for disease prevalence or virulence.

This research opens a short window in time on the scarlet fever epidemics of history and their relation to varicella. The years of analysis stand about midway between the high incidence, virulent scarlet fever epidemics of the late s, and the minor impact that scarlet fever had in the s. The return of more virulent strains in the late 20th century, however, supports the idea that S.

The resurgence of invasive GAS infection and scarlet fever has renewed attention to the relationship between S. The research here is pertinent in showing a potential for causal and co-infections between varicella and scarlet fever that might have influenced its evolutionary trend. Further historical analysis and, possibly, recovery of S. Ethics approval: Ethical approval was not sought for this study because all data used are historical, aggregate public health data that are publicly available.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jul Stephen Coleman. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Email: moc. Received Mar 14; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Objectives: The aim of the research is to investigate the historical relationship between varicella and Streptococcus pyogenes infections. Methods: The analysis begins with a search of historical medical reports on the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever epidemics in the late 19th and early 20th century, as well as in more recent empirical studies.

Results: Historical records give limited support for a causal relationship between varicella and scarlet fever but indicate that these diseases often occurred close in time to each other. Conclusion: The close correspondence of the two diseases likely depends on multiple factors, including seasonal forcing, a causal relationship, and co-infections. Keywords: Varicella, chickenpox, scarlet fever, group A streptococcus, epidemics, historical.

Introduction The aim of this research is to investigate the historical relationship between varicella chickenpox and group A streptococcus GAS infections. Method of analysis Historical review In this research, the historical relationship between varicella and scarlet fever or GAS infections was examined in three ways. Table 1. Year Mean scarlet fever cases Weeks scarlet fever data Mean varicella cases Weeks varicella data a Open in a separate window.

Table 2.

Jump to content. Chickenpox varicella is a contagious illness that causes an itchy rash and red spots or blisters pox all over the body. Chickenpox can cause problems for pregnant women, newborns, teens and adults, and people who have immune system problems that make it hard for the body to fight infection.

Chickenpox usually isn't a serious health problem in healthy children. But a child with chickenpox needs to stay home from school. And you may need to miss work in order to care for your child. After you have had chickenpox, you aren't likely to get it again. But the virus stays in your body long after you get over the illness.

If the virus becomes active again, it can cause a painful viral infection called shingles. Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It can spread easily. You can get it from an infected person who sneezes, coughs, or shares food or drinks. You can also get it if you touch the fluid from a chickenpox blister. A person who has chickenpox can spread the virus even before he or she has any symptoms. Chickenpox is most easily spread from 2 to 3 days before the rash appears until all the blisters have crusted over.

You are at risk for chickenpox if you have never had the illness and haven't had the chickenpox vaccine. If someone you live with gets chickenpox, your risk is even higher because of the close contact.

The first symptoms of chickenpox usually develop about 14 to 16 days after contact with a person infected with the virus. Most people feel sick and have a fever, a decreased appetite, a headache, a cough, and a sore throat. The itchy chickenpox rash usually appears about 1 or 2 days after the first symptoms start. After a chickenpox red spot appears, it usually takes about 1 or 2 days for the spot to go through all its stages. This includes blistering, bursting, drying, and crusting over.

New red spots will appear every day for up to 5 to 7 days. It usually takes about 10 days after the first symptoms before all blisters have crusted over. This is when the person with chickenpox can return to day care, school, or work. Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and will examine you.

This usually gives your doctor enough information to find out if you have chickenpox. A healthy child with chickenpox symptoms may not need to visit a doctor. You may be able to describe your child's symptoms to the doctor over the phone. Teenagers, adults, pregnant women, and people with health problems need to see a doctor for chickenpox. This is especially important for pregnant women, since chickenpox during pregnancy can cause birth defects or serious newborn infection.

Most healthy children and adults need only home treatment for chickenpox. Home treatment includes resting and taking medicines to reduce fever and itching. You also can soak in oatmeal baths to help with itching. People with long-term diseases or other health problems may need more treatment for chickenpox. They may need immunoglobulin treatment IG or antiviral medicine. Your doctor can give you these soon after you are exposed to the virus to help you feel better sooner.

You can prevent chickenpox with the chickenpox vaccine. Children get the chickenpox vaccine as part of their routine immunizations. If you have been around a person who has the virus and you have not had chickenpox or the vaccine, you still may be able to prevent the illness. Get a shot of chickenpox antibodies immunoglobulin or the vaccine right away. The varicella-zoster virus, one of the herpes viruses, causes chickenpox infection. The same virus that causes chickenpox also causes shingles herpes zoster.

The chickenpox virus can spread easily from one person to another. It most often spreads through the respiratory tract, such as mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. You also can get chickenpox through the air from an infected person's sneezing or coughing. Less often, chickenpox is spread when fluid from a chickenpox blister gets on your skin.

The first symptoms are usually mild in children, but they can be severe in teens and adults. These symptoms may continue throughout the illness. About 1 or 2 days after the first symptoms of chickenpox appear, an itchy rash develops.

About 14 to 16 days after contact with a person infected with the virus, the first symptoms of chickenpox usually develop. Chickenpox is most contagious from 2 to 3 days before the rash appears until all the blisters have crusted over. The chickenpox rash usually appears on the upper body about 1 or 2 days after the first symptoms start.

The trunk usually is most affected, and the arms and legs the least. The rash also may spread to the scalp, face, nose, and mouth. In rare cases, it spreads into the eyelid lining conjunctiva , into the clear covering over the eye cornea , inside the throat, or into the genital area. Skin infection is the most common complication for children under age 5.

Skin infection can form after the rash is scratched. Scratching allows bacteria from the skin or under the fingernails to get into a chickenpox blister. The infection can become serious if it isn't treated. An infected blister also may leave a scar.

Some people also are at increased risk of more serious problems from chickenpox. This higher-risk group includes newborns, teenagers, adults—especially pregnant women—and those who have weak immune systems. Although you become immune to the chickenpox virus after you have had chickenpox, the virus will still be in your body.

The virus can later cause shingles herpes zoster , usually when you are an older adult. About 1 in 5 people who have chickenpox will later get shingles. After you have had chickenpox or the vaccine, you become immune to the virus. It is possible that you may have a slight reaction after reexposure, such as a few spots and a slight fever. But you aren't likely to get chickenpox more than once.

If you are a teen or adult, are pregnant, or have a weak immune system, it's important to see your doctor as soon as you think you've been exposed to the chickenpox virus. Your doctor may want to give you a medicine that helps protect you from the virus. Then your child won't have to leave the house and risk spreading the virus to others.

But it is important to check with your doctor to find out if he or she wants to see your child. If you go to a doctor's office, ask if you need to take any precautions when you arrive to avoid spreading the infection.

For example, office staff may take you directly to an exam room when you arrive, rather than have you wait in the lobby. If severe complications develop, you may be referred to a specialist. For example, you may see a pulmonologist for lung problems. Chickenpox usually can be diagnosed based on how the chickenpox rash looks. For a healthy child, describing the rash over the phone to a doctor rather than visiting the office may be all you need to do.

Anyone who is over age 12, or pregnant, or has a weak immune system needs to be checked by a doctor as soon as you suspect chickenpox. When given right away, treatment can help prevent serious complications. For more information, see When to Call a Doctor. At the doctor's office, your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and will examine you.

A woman who has had chickenpox early in her pregnancy may want to have her fetus checked for birth defects.

This can be done with a fetal ultrasound during the second trimester. If you have never had chickenpox or the chickenpox vaccine, you have no immunity against the virus. This means that the virus can make you sick—you can get chickenpox. If you need to make sure you're immune to the chickenpox virus, a viral test can tell you. It makes sense to get a viral test if you aren't sure you're immune and you:.

Treatment for chickenpox depends on your age, your health, how long it's been since you were exposed to the virus, and your symptoms. The chickenpox, or varicella, virus spreads easily from person to person. If you have never had chickenpox or the chickenpox vaccine , you have no immunity against the virus. This means that the virus can make you sick. If you or your child is not immune, you can prevent chickenpox by getting the vaccine.

It is recommended for:. For women who aren't immune, chickenpox and pregnancy can be a dangerous combination. Getting the vaccine when not pregnant prevents complications of chickenpox during pregnancy. Talk to your doctor about the right timing for the vaccine.

You can help prevent chickenpox by avoiding close contact with people infected with the virus.

Chicken pox and strep throat

Chicken pox and strep throat

Chicken pox and strep throat