A mature industry is an industry that has passed both the emerging and growth phases of industry growth. At the beginning of the industry lifecycle , new products or services find use in the marketplace. Many businesses may spring up trying to profit from the new product demand. Over time, failures and consolidations will distill the business to the strongest as the industry continues to grow. This is the period where the surviving companies are considered to be mature.
This means that if you are in an Adult region, you can only speak with other Residents who are also in nearby Adult regions. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development describe progression into adult maturity, with each maturational stage characterized by a certain kind of psychsocial conflict. The software process framework documented is intended to guide those wishing to assess an organization's or project's consistency with the Key Process Areas. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Region owners who wish to host this sort of Second Life experience can but need not designate their regions as General. Groups, events and classifieds that relate Definition mature categories this broad range of Cuban facials and themes generally should also be designated as Moderate.
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The Capability Maturity Model CMM is a development model created after a study of data collected from organizations that contracted with the U.
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- A market that has reached a state of equilibrium due to lack of innovation and growth is a mature market.
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Never miss a great news story! Get instant notifications from Economic Times Allow Not now. Definition: Categories in the context to financial markets are asset classes where an investor can invest. There are various categories to invest in such as debt instruments, equity instruments and a portfolio of both. Description: Categories in context to mutual funds can be classified into equity fund, debt fund or hybrid funds with equity funds being classified by size Large Cap Stocks, Mid Cap Stocks, Small Cap Stocks and by investment styles like investing in a growth stock like a small company stock which possesses greater risk leading to greater returns.
Other investment style includes investing in a value stock like large company stocks which are relatively less risky and hence provide lesser return. Similarly in the debt or fixed income instruments, the bonds can be categorized by maturity and credit rating risk. Hybrid funds can be a mix of equity and debt with a higher orientation towards any one commensurate with the investment objective.
Description: Ultra short-term funds help investors avoid interest rate risks, yet they are riskier and offer better returns than most money market instruments. Liquid and ultra short-term funds are similar on various lines, yet there are differences between a. Description: Categories in context to mutual funds can be classified into equity fund, debt fund or hybrid funds with equity funds being classified by size Large Cap S. When we talk of open-end funds, NAV is crucial.
NAV gives the fund's value that an investor w. The units can be purchased and sold even after the initial offering NFO period in case of new funds. The units are bought and sold at the net asset value NAV declared by the fund.
Description: The number of outstanding units goes up or down every time the fund hou. Apart from these categories, debt funds include various funds investing in short term, medium term and long term bonds.
Description: Deb. This fee charged is generally referred to as a 'load'. Exit load is a fee or an amount charged from an investor for exiting or leaving a scheme or the company as an investor. Description: The aim behind the collection of this commission at the time investors exit the scheme is to discourage them from doi. This exchange takes place at a predetermined time, as specified in the contract. Description: Swaps are not exchange oriented and are traded over the counter, usually the dealing are oriented through banks.
Swaps can be used to hedge risk of various kinds which includes interest rate risk and cur. Within schemes, various mutual funds like equity funds, debt funds and hybrid funds etc invest in different categories based on the scheme's pre-defined investment objective.
The further division of scheme classes is called scheme category. Description: Equity funds are further divided into a variety of.
As the name suggests, if an investment is held till its maturity date, the rate of return that it will generate will be Yield to Maturity. Description: Calculation of YTM is a complex process which takes into account the following key factors: 1.
Current Market Price 2. Par Value 3. Coupon Interest Rate 4. Time to maturit. Description: As per the investment objective, scheme options available in India are: Growth Schemes: These schemes are appropriate for investors who are looking for capital appreciation in the long run. Dividend Schemes: Dividends are paid out of the. All rights reserved. For reprint rights: Times Syndication Service. Choose your reason below and click on the Report button.
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The Capability Maturity Model CMM is a development model created after a study of data collected from organizations that contracted with the U. Department of Defense , who funded the research. The term "maturity" relates to the degree of formality and optimization of processes, from ad hoc practices, to formally defined steps, to managed result metrics, to active optimization of the processes.
The model's aim is to improve existing software development processes, but it can also be applied to other processes. The Capability Maturity Model was originally developed as a tool for objectively assessing the ability of government contractors' processes to implement a contracted software project.
It was later published in a report in  and as a book by the same authors in Though the model comes from the field of software development , it is also used as a model to aid in business processes generally, and has also been used extensively worldwide in government offices, commerce, and industry.
In the s, the use of computers grew more widespread, more flexible and less costly. Organizations began to adopt computerized information systems, and the demand for software development grew significantly.
Many processes for software development were in their infancy, with few standard or "best practice" approaches defined. As a result, the growth was accompanied by growing pains: project failure was common, the field of computer science was still in its early years, and the ambitions for project scale and complexity exceeded the market capability to deliver adequate products within a planned budget. Individuals such as Edward Yourdon ,  Larry Constantine , Gerald Weinberg ,  Tom DeMarco ,  and David Parnas began to publish articles and books with research results in an attempt to professionalize the software-development processes.
In the s, several US military projects involving software subcontractors ran over-budget and were completed far later than planned, if at all. Nolan , who, in published the stages of growth model for IT organizations.
Watts Humphrey began developing his process maturity concepts during the later stages of his year career at IBM. At the request of the U. Department of Defense in evaluating the capability of software contractors as part of awarding contracts. The result of the Air Force study was a model for the military to use as an objective evaluation of software subcontractors' process capability maturity. Crosby in his book "Quality is Free".
Humphrey based his approach on the staged evolution of a system of software development practices within an organization, rather than measuring the maturity of each separate development process independently. The CMM has thus been used by different organizations as a general and powerful tool for understanding and then improving general business process performance. Organizations were originally assessed using a process maturity questionnaire and a Software Capability Evaluation method devised by Humphrey and his colleagues at the Software Engineering Institute.
The full representation of the Capability Maturity Model as a set of defined process areas and practices at each of the five maturity levels was initiated in , with Version 1. Paulk, Charles V. The CMM model's application in software development has sometimes been problematic. Applying multiple models that are not integrated within and across an organization could be costly in training, appraisals, and improvement activities.
The CMM was originally intended as a tool to evaluate the ability of government contractors to perform a contracted software project. Though it comes from the area of software development, it can be, has been, and continues to be widely applied as a general model of the maturity of process e. A maturity model can be viewed as a set of structured levels that describe how well the behaviors, practices and processes of an organization can reliably and sustainably produce required outcomes.
A maturity model can be used as a benchmark for comparison and as an aid to understanding - for example, for comparative assessment of different organizations where there is something in common that can be used as a basis for comparison. In the case of the CMM, for example, the basis for comparison would be the organizations' software development processes.
There are five levels defined along the continuum of the model and, according to the SEI: "Predictability, effectiveness, and control of an organization's software processes are believed to improve as the organization moves up these five levels.
While not rigorous, the empirical evidence to date supports this belief". Within each of these maturity levels are Key Process Areas which characterise that level, and for each such area there are five factors: goals, commitment, ability, measurement, and verification. These are not necessarily unique to CMM, representing — as they do — the stages that organizations must go through on the way to becoming mature.
The model provides a theoretical continuum along which process maturity can be developed incrementally from one level to the next. At maturity level 5, processes are concerned with addressing statistical common causes of process variation and changing the process for example, to shift the mean of the process performance to improve process performance.
This would be done at the same time as maintaining the likelihood of achieving the established quantitative process-improvement objectives. There are only a few companies in the world that have attained this level 5.
The model was originally intended to evaluate the ability of government contractors to perform a software project. It has been used for and may be suited to that purpose, but critics [ who?
The software process framework documented is intended to guide those wishing to assess an organization's or project's consistency with the Key Process Areas. For each maturity level there are five checklist types:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. March IEEE Software. Technical Report. Retrieved Modern Structured Analysis. New York: Prentice Hall. Quality Software Management: Anticipating Change. New York: Dorset House Pub. Process Enhancement Partners, Inc.
July Quality is Free. New York: New American Library. Managing the Software Process. SEI series in software engineering. Reading, Mass. Juran'S Quality Hb 6E. Categories : Software development process Maturity models Information technology management. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Articles that may contain original research from August Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from September All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January Commons category link is on Wikidata Commons category link is on Wikidata using P Articles with Curlie links.
Provides an overview of an entire maturity level. These are further refined into checklists for: Key Process Areas purposes, goals, policies, and standards; process descriptions; procedures; training; tools; reviews and audits; work products; measurements.