There are many mobile phone apps aimed at helping women map their ovulation and menstrual cycles and facilitating successful conception or avoiding pregnancy. These apps usually ask users to input various biological features and have accumulated the menstrual cycle data of a vast number of women. The purpose of our study was to clarify how the data obtained from a self-tracking health app for female mobile phone users can be used to improve the accuracy of prediction of the date of next ovulation. Using the data of women who had reliable menstrual and ovulation records out of 8,, users of a mobile phone app of a health care service, we analyzed the relationship between the menstrual cycle length, follicular phase length, and luteal phase length. Then we fitted a linear function to the relationship between the length of the menstrual cycle and timing of ovulation and compared it with the existing calendar-based methods.
The length of Information on mentrual periods and pregnancy menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman, but the average is to have periods every 28 days. This kind of cervical mucus is known as 'fertile mucus' because a woman is considered fertile when it is present. Sunni Mumford, Ph. British Medical Journal Severe pain or bleeding mentrusl causes you to miss regular activities is not normal and can be treated. Figure 1. Your period may also change over time. Information and Communications in Japan.
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Humans do, in fact, reabsorb about two-thirds of the endometrium each cycle. Retrieved 21 September This is referred to as the follicular phase Information on mentrual periods and pregnancy encompasses menstruation as well and ends when you ovulate [ 3 ]. Am just confuse! Violence against women Abuse during childbirth Domestic violence Intimate partner violence Misogyny Sexual harassment Sexual assault Rape Femicide Gender discrimination. Females with premenstrual syndrome PMS report changes in appetite across the menstrual cycle more than non-sufferers of PMS, possibly due to their oversensitivity to changes in hormone levels. Second, menstrual abnormalities are more Teen fishing with more weight loss. Mayo Clinic. Evolutionary Psychology. The next piece of information that you will be asked for is the average length of time between your periods. BMC Public Health. All David movie playboy health topics.
Since traditional contraceptive methods are still employed by a large population in India, the knowledge regarding the pregnancy risk during the menstrual cycle is indispensable.
- All A-Z health topics.
- The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system specifically the uterus and ovaries that makes pregnancy possible.
- Your menstrual cycle can say a lot about your health.
- Understanding how the process works is important, since you can use this information to help to either get pregnant or avoid getting pregnant, to better manage any menstrual symptoms you are experiencing, and understand when there might be a problem.
- Menstruation , also known as a period or monthly ,  is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue known as menses from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
- You want to know the dates of your next period, ovulation or due date?
In a normal menstrual cycle, women experience menstruation also known as a period followed by the release of an egg. During menstruation blood, cells and mucus are discharged from the uterus. The menstrual cycle starts on the first day of the menstrual period referred to as day one and ends the day before the next period begins.
While the length of the menstrual cycle is often 28 days, it can vary between women and from one cycle to the next. It is common for women to experience cycles that last anywhere from 20 to 40 days. Cycles longer than six weeks are considered unusual. Irregular periods are common among adolescent women, and in women approaching menopause. Factors such as stress, extreme emotion good or bad , weight changes, excessive physical activity and travelling can also cause irregularities in a woman's menstrual cycle.
The menstrual cycle has four distinct phases: menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase. Although menstruation is considered to be the first phase of the cycle, in order to properly understand menstruation, it is necessary to first explain the other phases. They produce the hormone oestrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus endometrium to become thick in preparation for the possible embedding of a fertilised egg 1.
Usually only one follicle develops into a mature egg 2. This follicle moves towards the surface of the ovary, while the others break down and are reabsorbed by the body.
The follicular phase begins on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation. It can vary considerably in length, depending on the time of ovulation. This in turn causes the pituitary gland to produce increased levels of luteinising hormone LH. The abrupt rise in LH, known as the LH surge, triggers ovulation. Following ovulation, the egg is swept into the fallopian tube and moved along towards the uterus. If fertilisation does not occur, the egg disintegrates within hours.
This kind of cervical mucus is known as 'fertile mucus' because a woman is considered fertile when it is present. Fertile mucus assists and nourishes sperm as they travel up the vagina towards the opening of the cervix. When a woman is in a non-fertile phase of her cycle, her cervical mucus differs in colour and texture. It might be sticky, crumbly, gummy or creamy like lotion in texture, and white, milky or yellow in colour 3.
This mucus cannot be stretched between the fingers and may have a sour smell. It is important to note that secretions related to sexual arousal, semen, lubricants, spermicides, vaginal infections e. The positioning of the cervix and its opening also change throughout a woman's cycle. At about the time of ovulation, the cervix moves into a higher position and its opening widens.
Some women may experience aches or pain around the time of ovulation. This pain can vary from cramps or a general ache in the abdomen to sharp pains in one side. Spotting light bleeding can also occur at this time. Time of ovulation Women often believe that ovulation occurs mid-cycle. It actually occurs days before the next period starts. So, although a woman with a day cycle may ovulate mid-cycle between day 12 and day 16 , a woman with a day cycle will ovulate between day 20 and day For women with regular cycles, an easy way to approximate the time of ovulation is to subtract 16 from the number of days in the cycle and then add 4.
This will calculate the span of days in which ovulation is most likely to occur. Ovulation and conception Following ovulation, the egg's lifespan can be up to 24 hours, but is usually between six and 12 hours 4.
In contrast, sperm generally survive for three days, but can live inside the vagina for up to five days if optimal fertile cervical mucus is present 5. These hormones contribute to the further thickening and maintenance of the uterine lining. If fertilisation does not occur, the corpus luteum breaks down and progesterone levels decline, leading to the disintegration of the uterus lining.
During the luteal phase, women may experience physical and emotional changes including tender or lumpy breasts, fluid retention, bloating, mood swings, tiredness or anxiety see Premenstrual syndrome. Menstruation generally lasts from three to seven days. Some women regularly have periods that are shorter or longer than this. The length can also differ from one cycle to the next. In addition to blood, menstrual fluid is made up of several components including endometrial cells, cervical mucus and vaginal secretions 6.
The amount of menstrual fluid lost varies between women and from one cycle to the next, but a woman generally loses about ml of fluid each time she has a period 7. Menstrual flow may be heaviest or lightest at the beginning of menstruation or may change throughout. The colour can range between black, brown, dark red, bright red and pink.
Menstrual fluid only tends to have an unpleasant odour after it has been in contact with air for a period of time. Age of first and last period menarche and menopause In Australia, menarche the onset of menstruation occurs most often in girls aged from 11 to Girls with a higher body mass index BMI are likely to begin getting periods earlier than those with lower BMI scores 9. Girls who are highly physically active such as athletes tend to have slightly delayed menarche.
Research suggests that the average age of menarche has fallen during the last century. This can be attributed to a number of factors including improved nutrition, better healthcare and possibly the increase in oestrogen-like substances in the environment e. It is recommended that if a young woman has not had her period by the time she is 16, she should consult a doctor to ensure that she does not have a medical condition that is preventing menstruation from occurring When young women first start menstruating, they are often anovulatory not ovulating and, therefore, not fertile.
However, it is important for sexually active young women to remember that as soon as they start menstruating, pregnancy can occur. Therefore, they should use contraception if they wish to avoid becoming pregnant. Menstruation without ovulation can also occur at other life stages, such as before menopause. Menopause, the ending of periods, typically occurs in women who are in their late 40s or early 50s. While irregular bleeding is also common at this time, it can be a symptom of gynaecological cancer so women experiencing this should consult their doctor.
Even though women may be unsure as to whether they are ovulating prior to menopause, contraception still needs to be used if pregnancy wants to be avoided. Sex and menstruation Some women avoid sexual activity when they have their period for personal, cultural or religious reasons.
However, there are few physical reasons why women should avoid sex during menstruation. One consideration is that the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections such as hepatitis C and HIV is higher when having unprotected sex at this time. It is possible for pregnancy to occur if women have unprotected sex during menstruation. Women who want to avoid pregnancy should use contraception at this time. The Pill and menstruation The Pill contains synthetic oestrogen to prevent the development of an egg and therefore, ovulation , and synthetic progesterone to increase the thickness of cervical mucus to slow the movement of sperm and prevent the complete development of the uterine lining.
Women taking the Pill can use it to miss or delay a withdrawal bleed. This can be convenient for women planning travel or special occasions. Women who experience health problems such as endometriosis, menstrual migraine and heavy bleeding may use the Pill to reduce the number of withdrawal bleeds they have a year and, therefore, the number of times they experience symptoms. However, women on a triphasic Pill a version of the Pill that delivers different dosages throughout the cycle may experience spotting if they do this, due to the change in hormone levels at the start and end of the pill packet.
Women on triphasic Pills who wish to miss a withdrawal bleed should seek advice from their doctor. Breakthrough bleeding can sometimes occur in women on the Pill, particularly in the first few months of taking it or if the woman is using a triphasic Pill. A woman is still covered contraceptively if she has not missed any active pills and has a breakthrough bleed. However, she should consult her doctor to review the choice of Pill and to ensure the bleeding is not related to another condition see Bleeding between periods section.
Return of periods after childbirth The length of time before a woman's period returns following pregnancy largely depends on whether she is breastfeeding or not. This is because the hormone that stimulates milk production, prolactin, also inhibits ovulation and the return of menstruation.
Therefore, women who are fully breastfeeding may not have a period for several months after childbirth or until they finish breastfeeding. The return of menstruation in breastfeeding mothers depends upon the frequency and duration of breastfeeds a day. In women who are not breastfeeding, and women who are combining breastfeeding with bottle feeding, menstruation can return as soon as five-to-six weeks following childbirth.
It is also important to note that even though breastfeeding can delay the return of periods, it is not a reliable form of contraception. Some of the most commonly reported menstrual problems are an absence of periods, painful periods, heavy bleeding, bleeding between periods, and premenstrual syndrome PMS.
These disturbances can be caused by a wide range of factors including weight gain or loss body weight and body fat percentage are directly related to ovulation and menstruation , being chronically underweight 16 , over-exercising, extreme emotion both good and bad , anxiety or stress, travel, dietary changes, and conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome Often, amenorrhoea is temporary, with menstrual periods returning in time.
Women who are not pregnant and have not had a period for longer than six months should consult their doctor. This kind of pain is not normal and women should consult their doctor if the pain they experience interferes with their ability to function normally.
Women might get pain a few days before their period or during the first few days of bleeding. The pain can be a cramping-type pain, caused by the contraction of the uterine muscles, or a heavy dragging pain in the pelvic region. Pain in the legs and back, headaches, nausea, constipation and diarrhoea are also common. Period pain can be the result of prostaglandins, the substance that causes the uterus to contract during a period. Severe period pain might also signal the presence of conditions such as pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis.
Popular remedies for mild pain include analgesics aspirin or paracetamol , warm baths, heat packs, gentle exercise and rest. Treatment for more severe period pain includes the use of antiprostaglandins e. If women do not find relief with these treatments they should consult their doctor.
However, the degree to which a woman's period interferes with her everyday life can provide a guide e. Heavy bleeding can be caused by a number of factors including hormonal imbalances, fibroids, polyps, endometriosis, or, less commonly, bleeding disorders. Excessive blood loss through heavy periods can lead to iron deficiency and anaemia.
Other treatment options include inserting a Mirena intra-uterine device IUD , or undergoing endometrial ablation a procedure that causes the destruction of the uterine lining..
It can also be a side effect of some contraceptives or medications see The Pill and menstruation section.
This content does not have an Arabic version. A significant correlation between progesterone levels and the ability to accurately recognize emotion was found. Current Anthropology. Horm Behav. More severe symptoms of anxiety or depression may be signs of premenstrual dysphoric disorder PMDD.
Information on mentrual periods and pregnancy. How many days did it last?
Periods and fertility in the menstrual cycle - NHS
Since traditional contraceptive methods are still employed by a large population in India, the knowledge regarding the pregnancy risk during the menstrual cycle is indispensable. This research paper attempts to assess the knowledge among urban men in Uttar Pradesh, India about the fertile window of the menstrual cycle; it also attempts to discover the rationales behind the misconceptions about the concept.
Descriptive Statistics has been used to assess the prevalence of knowledge among urban men regarding the concept. Using the Discriminant Analysis, we also investigate the rationales behind the misconceptions among urban men about the concept. Only one-fifth of the men have the correct knowledge about the concept. Further, we find that education, societal perception, caste, and spousal discussion about the reproductive issues are the primary factors affecting the knowledge about the pregnancy risk during the menstrual cycle.
There is an urgent need for sex education in the region to make the urban men more educated about the reproductive process of women; this may reduce unwanted births and abortion due to an unwanted pregnancy as well.
The study promotes the higher education and motivates couples to discuss the reproductive health issues among them. In this manner, we can provide better reproductive health to the women of urban India. In India, traditional contraceptive methods are employed by a large population, and most of the time decisions related to family planning are taken by the men of the household. Therefore, it is really necessary for men to have the correct idea of when a woman is most susceptible to pregnancy during the menstrual cycle.
The study tries to assess the prevalence of such knowledge among urban men in Uttar Pradesh, India. Also, it attempts to investigate the rationals behind the misconceptions among men of the region under study. We have found that only one-fifth of the men have the correct knowledge about the concept.
Further, education, societal perception, caste, and spousal discussion about the reproductive issues are found to be the most important components that affect the knowledge among men about the conception risk during the menstrual cycle.
The study suggests promoting the sex education in urban Uttar Pradesh, especially in slum areas to educate the men regarding the reproductive functions of women. Also, the article promotes higher education and motivates couples to discuss the reproductive hurdles among them. These interventions can provide a better reproductive health to the women of urban Uttar Pradesh, India. The effective contraceptive practice is usually measured by knowledge about the reproductive process and related issues.
In an American study, it is observed that only one-third of urban mothers interviewed twice, a year apart, answered correctly both times about when during the menstrual cycle a woman is most likely to become pregnant [ 1 ].
Menstruation is an important reproductive health function, yet it has been dealt with secrecy in India, [ 3 ]. Due to some cultural barriers, most couples rarely have a conversation regarding the menstruation and pregnancy risks during menstruation. A number of taboos and social and cultural restrictions still exists concerning menstruation, [ 4 ], [ 5 ], [ 6 ], and [ 7 ]. As it is argued, erroneous information about the risk of conception during the menstrual cycle may lead to increased fertility [ 10 ].
It is realized that only Usually, the sperm can survive for three to five days in the fallopian tube and after ovulation; the released egg takes approx 12 to 24 hours to make its way through the fallopian tube. Thus, chances of pregnancy to occur are highest when a couple has intercourse without contraceptives one to two days before ovulation.
In this connection, the 14th day of the cycle is the most susceptible day for fertilization of the egg [ 12 ]. In some cases, women know when they are ovulating by observing the changes in their body and the way they feel. Some quintessential measures are breast tenderness, hefty and denser vaginal discharge, tightness in the abdomen; however, these body changes are difficult to be understood by couples.
Many others do not have any noticeable symptoms. In India, the traditional contraceptive methods are still employed by a large population; therefore, the misinformation about the fertile window during MC may lead to the failure of the traditional contraception methods.
The knowledge about the conception risk during the menstrual cycle is essential to ward off the unwanted births and abortions due to unwanted pregnancies. Against this background, this study estimates the prevalence of knowledge about the conception risk during menstrual cycle among urban men of Uttar Pradesh, India. In this connection, men have been asked when during the menstrual cycle they think women are most susceptible to the risk of conception and we attempt to discover the rationales behind the misconceptions among urban men about the concept.
URHI is a multi-national study involving, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal that assess contraceptive behavior, awareness, and quality among poor belonging to urban areas. The baseline data were collected in four cities, Agra, Aligarh, Allahabad and Gorakhpur. A total of currently married men aged 18—54 were interviewed in these towns.
A two-stage sampling approach was employed to collect the sample for each city. Cities were split into slum and non-slum as primary sampling units based on ground truthing and satellite imagery. Questions about awareness of contraceptive methods, fertility desires, attitudes toward reproductive health, contraceptive use by themselves or their wives, the pregnancy risk during the menstrual cycle, were asked to the men belonging to urban Uttar Pradesh, India.
For the purpose of analysis, the dependent variable was re-coded into a new variable which has only two categories: 1 men who have the false information or do not know about the concept of pregnancy risk during menstrual cycle, and 2 men who have the correct information about the time at which the conception risk is highest i.
Percentage distribution of men regarding the perception about pregnancy risk during menstrual cycle. Discriminant analysis does the same analysis as linear regressions, by predicting an outcome; however, in multiple linear regression, the dependent variable is an interval variable so that the combination of explanatory variables will provide estimated mean population Y values for given values of the weighted sum of X values Predictor through the regression function.
Discriminant analysis is used when the dependent is a categorical variable with the predictors of interval level, such as years of education, income, and age; although one can use dummy variables as predictors similar to multiple regression. This equation is similar to a regression equation. Good predictors contain larger weights in discriminant function. The equation should hold strong discriminatory power between groups since the discriminant function is supposed to maximize the distance between the categories of study variable.
Thus, the D. The number of discriminant functions is one less than the number of groups or category. There is only one function for the D. In our problem the dependent variable, knowledge about the pregnancy risk during menstrual cycle has been classified into two categories; one has the accurate knowledge about the fertile window during the menstrual cycle, and the other category does not have the actual idea of the concept. Since the predictors, involved in our D.
A, are not at interval level, we have created dummy variables for each category of predictor variables. In this study, the D. A has been performed for slum area and non-slum area separately.
The paramount assumptions required to be tested to check the compatibility of data with D. A are normality and homoscedasticity. Therefore, it can be concluded that the data hold the homoscedasticity assumption. Further, the normal Q-Q curve for the standardized residuals has been plotted to check the normality assumption.
After having a glance at Fig. Since the data fulfill the assumptions of homoscedasticity and normality, the discriminant analysis has been applied for analysis. SPSS software has been used for the above analysis. It is essential to note that only one-fifth of the men have the correct information about pregnancy risk during the menstrual cycle, while the remaining four-fifth of them do not have the accurate information about this concept.
After having a glance at the table, it can be concluded that the highest percentage men have given the response that the maximum risk of conception occurs right after the menstruation period ends, and its percentage is more than 50 for each category of variables under consideration. Further, it can also be seen from the table that almost one-fifth respondents, do not have any idea about the concept among the illiterate men and men who have never discussed family planning with their wives.
In the table, group 1 includes the respondents who do not have the correct idea about the concept and group 2 includes the respondents who have the accurate information about the notion of pregnancy risk during MC.
Since all the exogenous variables are made binary In form of 0 or 1 , the mean provides the proportion of respondents in a particular category of the variable. It shows that men belonging to other religions have better information compared to the men belonging to the Hindu religion. The above finding indicates that men, having higher education keep better information about the concept compared to the men with no education.
Group 1 includes the respondents who do not have the correct knowledge and group 2 includes the respondents who have the accurate information about the fertile window of the menstrual cycle. The table shows that the media exposure is not a significant factor for the group separation regarding the knowledge about the conception risk during the MC; this might be due to a high correlation between the media exposure and the educational attainment of men in urban Uttar Pradesh.
The finding says that the men who dwell in a society that supports MFPM have more actual information compared to the men living in a society that does not support MFPM and the men who do not know about the view of society regarding the MFPM.
This finding leads to the statement that the men who discuss family planning with their wives have more actual information regarding the concept of highest pregnancy time during MC compared to the men who do not talk about the family planning with their partner.
It can be regarded from the table that the variables like the perception of society about MFPM, religion, and discussion of the respondent with the wife about family planning reflects the same results as we have found in the analysis for slum area. Further for non-slum population, caste has not been noticed as a significant factor for group separation.
The table reflects that for non-slum population, wealth status of men is not an important variable; this may be due to that other social and cultural factors are more dominant; also wealth status is highly associated with educational attainment.
Tables provide information on each of the discriminant functions equations produced. The maximum number of discriminant functions produced is the number of groups minus 1. In this study only two groups are considered, thus only one function is displayed. The canonical correlation is the multiple correlation between the predictors and the discriminant function.
With only one function, it provides an index of overall model fit which is interpreted as being the proportion of variance explained R 2.
This is the proportion of the total variance in the discriminant scores not explained by differences among groups. This is a measure of how well each function separates cases into groups. Thus, our discriminant function is statistically significant for group separation. Considering that almost four-fifth of married men in both slum and non-slum areas of urban Uttar Pradesh do not have the correct knowledge of the concept, there is an urgent need for sex education.
Classical contraceptive methods are also used by a huge number of couples in the region. The study depicts that the higher education results into a better knowledge about the conception risk during the menstrual cycle. Literacy and employment can bring the wealth condition up; therefore literacy is the only way to get rid of such misinformations regarding the reproductive biology of women, which is why study suggests promoting the higher education.
Our perception about something is built according to the society; in which we are living. Due to this, it is found that men living in a society, that encourages the MFPM, have better information about the fertile window than who are residing in a society that does not support MFPM. Thus, to educate people, it is necessary to educate the society as a whole. Also, this study suggests urban men, to have interaction with the society and discuss the reproductive health and other related issues like family planning, etc.
The effective inter-spouse communication on matters, related to family planning is very crucial for the success of family planning programs [ 14 ], and [ 15 ]. In India due to various cultural barriers and customs, even husband and wife feel shy to discuss the sensitive issues like family planning and reproductive process. Sharing the accurate knowledge with the spouse regarding the fertile window during MC will reduce the misconceptions among the urban men in the region. The study recommends couples to talk about the sexual health and other relative issues with their spouses so that they can be aware of the different technicalities related to reproductive health and family planning.
The main limitation of the study is that it considers only one state Uttar Pradesh of India, though there are several states which are bearing the same challenges. There exists a huge diversity among the Indian states in terms of education, socio-economic conditions, culture, and norms.