Circumcision surgical procedure in males involves either a conventional "cut and stitch" surgical procedure or use of a circumcision instrument or device. In the newborn period less than 2 months of age , almost all circumcisions are done by generalist physicians using one of three surgical instruments. Complications may include bleeding , infection , and too little or too much tissue removal. Currently, most circumcisions in boys and men are performed using one of three open surgical methods. The forceps-guided method, the dorsal slit method, and the sleeve resection method are well described by the World Health Organization in their Manual for Male Circumcision under Local Anaesthesia.
A circumcision is considered a safe procedure with minimal, if any, risks. The PrePex [ Figure 9 ] device is disassembled at about a week after placement and the withered prepuce is bloodlessly severed from the penis. Retrieved June 11, Grooved sleeve is passed over the glans to sit just behind the corona. A pair of stout locking forceps is clamped across it parallel Jewish circumcision tools the corona and immediately in front of the Jesish.
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In the Catholic Church banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence  and currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision. Read: The Night Preceding the Circumcision. Code of Jewish Law, Yore Deah, Retrieved Moshe Git Minnetonka October 16, Namespaces Page Discussion. Many Jewish circumcision tools who had their sons circumcised suffered Celebrity scandals forum. Retrieved February 15, They have 2 names for it: 1. I would welcome another explanation Jfwish to how to reconcile this discrepancy. Practically, however, many parents come to a decision about circumcising the child before he is born, and a discussion of the benefits and risks of the procedure with a physician has not been shown to have a significant effect on the decision.
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- Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
- In Jewish tradition, boys are circumcised on their 8th day of life.
- Read: The Mark of Truth.
The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal seudat mitzvah. According to the Hebrew Bible Genesis —14 God commanded the Biblical patriarch Abraham to be circumcised, an act to be followed by his descendants:. Also, Leviticus provides: "And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.
According to the Hebrew Bible , it was "a reproach" for an Israelite to be uncircumcised Joshua The term arelim "uncircumcised" [plural] is used opprobriously, denoting the Philistines and other non-Israelites I Samuel , ; II Samuel and used in conjunction with tameh unpure for heathen Isaiah The word arel "uncircumcised" [singular] is also employed for "impermeable" Leviticus , "their uncircumcised hearts"; compare Jeremiah ; Ezekiel , 9 ; it is also applied to the first three years' fruit of a tree, which is forbidden Leviticus However, the Israelites born in the wilderness after the Exodus from Egypt were not circumcised.
Joshua —9, explains, "all the people that came out" of Egypt were circumcised, but those "born in the wilderness" were not. Therefore, Joshua, before the celebration of the Passover , had them circumcised at Gilgal specifically before they entered Canaan. Abraham, too, was circumcised when he moved into Canaan. The prophetic tradition emphasizes that God expects people to be good as well as pious, and that non-Jews will be judged based on their ethical behavior, see Noahide Law.
Thus, Jeremiah —26 says that circumcised and uncircumcised will be punished alike by the Lord; for "all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart.
The penalty of non-observance is kareth spiritual excision from the Jewish nation , as noted in Genesis — Conversion to Judaism for non-Israelites in Biblical times necessitated circumcision, otherwise one could not partake in the Passover offering Exodus Today, as in the time of Abraham, it is required of converts in Orthodox , Conservative and Reform Judaism.
Genesis — As found in Genesis —14, brit milah is considered to be so important that should the eighth day fall on the Sabbath , actions that would normally be forbidden because of the sanctity of the day are permitted in order to fulfill the requirement to circumcise.
Covenants in ancient times were sometimes sealed by severing an animal, with the implication that the party who breaks the covenant will suffer a similar fate. In Hebrew, the verb meaning "to seal a covenant" translates literally as "to cut". It is presumed by Jewish scholars that the removal of the foreskin symbolically represents such a sealing of the covenant.
Due to Jesus having undertaken this ceremony as a Jewish child, memory of this tradition has been preserved in traditional Christian churches according to the Gospel of Luke. Significantly, the tradition of baptism universally replaced circumcision among Christians as the primary rite of passage as found in Paul's Epistle to the Colossians and in Acts of the Apostles.
A mohel is a Jew trained in the practice of brit milah , the "covenant of circumcision. It is customary for the brit to be held in a synagogue, but it can also be held at home or any other suitable location. The brit is performed on the eighth day from the baby's birth, taking into consideration that according to the Jewish calendar, the day begins at the sunset of the day before. If the baby is born on Sunday before sunset, the Brit will be held the following Sunday.
However, if the baby is born on Sunday night after sunset, the Brit is on the following Monday. The brit takes place on the eighth day following birth even if that day is Shabbat or a holiday. A brit is traditionally performed in the morning, but it may be performed any time during daylight hours. The Talmud explicitly instructs that a boy must not be circumcised if he had two brothers who died due to complications arising from their circumcisions,  and Maimonides says that this excluded paternal half-brothers.
This may be due to a concern about hemophilia. An Israeli study found a high rate of urinary tract infections if the bandage is left on too long. If the child is born prematurely or has other serious medical problems, the brit milah will be postponed until the doctors and mohel deem the child strong enough for his foreskin to be surgically removed. In recent years, the circumcision of adult Jews who were not circumcised as infants has become more common than previously thought.
The actual circumcision will be private, and other elements of the ceremony e. Most prominent acharonim rule that the mitzvah of brit milah lies in the pain it causes, and anesthetic, sedation, or ointment should generally not be used. Eliezer Waldenberg , Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg , Shmuel Wosner , Moshe Feinstein and others agree that the child should not be sedated, although pain relieving ointment may be used under certain conditions; Shmuel Wosner particularly asserts that the act ought to be painful, per Psalms In a letter to the editor published in The New York Times on January 3, , Rabbi Moshe David Tendler disagrees with the above and writes, "It is a biblical prohibition to cause anyone unnecessary pain".
Rabbi Tendler recommends the use of an analgesic cream. The title of kvater among Ashkenazi Jews is for the person who carries the baby from the mother to the father, who in turn carries him to the mohel. This honor is usually given to a couple without children, as a merit or segula efficacious remedy that they should have children of their own.
The origin of the term is Middle High German gevater e "godfather". After the ceremony, a celebratory meal takes place. At the birkat hamazon , additional introductory lines, known as Nodeh Leshimcha , are added. These lines praise God and request the permission of God, the Torah , Kohanim and distinguished people present to proceed with the grace. When the four main blessings are concluded, special ha-Rachaman prayers are recited. They request various blessings by God that include:. At the neonatal stage, the inner preputial epithelium is still linked with the surface of the glans.
The main goal of "priah" also known as "bris periah" , is to remove as much of the inner layer of the foreskin as possible and prevent the movement of the shaft skin, what creates the look and function of what is known as a "low and tight" circumcision. According to Rabbinic interpretation of traditional Jewish sources,  the 'priah' has been performed as part of the Jewish circumcision since the Israelites first inhabited the Land of Israel.
Thus, the writers of the dictionary hypothesize that the more severe method practiced today was probably begun in order to prevent the possibility of restoring the foreskin after circumcision, and therefore the rabbis added the requirement of cutting the foreskin in periah.
A scalpel is used to detach the foreskin. A tube is used for metzitzah In addition to milah the actual circumcision and p'riah , mentioned above, the Talmud Mishnah Shabbat mentions a third step, metzitzah , translated as suction, as one of the steps involved in the circumcision rite. The Talmud writes that a " Mohel Circumciser who does not suck creates a danger, and should be dismissed from practice".
The process has the mohel place his mouth directly on the circumcision wound to draw blood away from the cut. The majority of Jewish circumcision ceremonies do not use metzitzah b'peh,  but some Haredi Jews use it.
The practice has become a controversy in both secular and Jewish medical ethics. The ritual of metzitzah is found in Mishnah Shabbat , which lists it as one of the four steps involved in the circumcision rite. Rabbi Moses Sofer — observed that the Talmud states that the rationale for this part of the ritual was hygienic — i.
The Chasam Sofer issued a leniency Heter that some consider to have been conditional to perform metzitzah with a sponge to be used instead of oral suction in a letter to his student, Rabbi Lazar Horowitz of Vienna. This letter was never published among Rabbi Sofer's responsa but rather in the secular journal Kochvei Yitzchok.
Wertheimer, the chief doctor of the Viennese General Hospital. It relates the story that a mohel who was suspected of transmitting herpes via metzizah to infants was checked several times and never found to have signs of the disease and that a ban was requested because of the "possibility of future infections". He also states Yoreh Deah that the practice is possibly a Sinaitic tradition, i. Other sources contradict this claim, with copies of Moses Sofer's responsa making no mention of the legal case or of his ruling applying in only one situation.
Rather, that responsa makes quite clear that "metzizah" was a health measure and should never be employed where there is a health risk to the infant. Chaim Hezekiah Medini , after corresponding with the greatest Jewish sages of the generation, concluded the practice to be Halacha l'Moshe m'Sinai and elaborates on what prompted Moses Sofer to give the above ruling.
When he presented the defense in secular court, his testimony was erroneously recorded to mean that Sofer stated it as a general ruling.
The practice of metzitzah b'peh was alleged to pose a serious risk in the transfer of herpes from mohelim to eight Israeli infants, one of whom suffered brain damage. The Health Department recommends that infants being circumcised not undergo metzitzah b'peh.
Antonia C. Novello , Commissioner of Health for New York State, together with a board of rabbis and doctors, worked, she said, to "allow the practice of metzizah b'peh to continue while still meeting the Department of Health's responsibility to protect the public health.
In three medical papers done in Israel, Canada, and the USA, oral suction following circumcision was suggested as a cause in 11 cases of neonatal herpes. Because of the risk of infection, some rabbinical authorities have ruled that the traditional practice of direct contact should be replaced by using a sterile tube between the wound and the mohel 's mouth, so there is no direct oral contact.
The Rabbinical Council of America , the largest group of Modern Orthodox rabbis, endorses this method. The sefer Mitzvas Hametzitzah  by Rabbi Sinai Schiffer of Baden, Germany, states that he is in possession of letters from 36 major Russian Lithuanian rabbis that categorically prohibit Metzitzah with a sponge and require it to be done orally. In September , the New York Department of Health unanimously ruled that the practice of metztizah b'peh should require informed consent from the parent or guardian of the child undergoing the ritual.
Berman,   argued that the study on which the department passed its conclusions is flawed. The "informed consent" regulation was challenged in court. In January the U. District court ruled that the law did not specifically target religion and therefore must not pass strict scrutiny. The ruling was appealed to the Court of Appeals. On August 15, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision by the lower court, and ruled that the regulation does have to be reviewed under strict scrutiny to determine whether it infringes on Orthodox Jews' freedom of religion.
On September 9, after coming to an agreement with the community The New York City Board of Health voted to repeal the informed consent regulation. A brit milah is more than circumcision, it is a sacred ritual in Judaism, as distinguished from its non-ritual requirement in Islam. One ramification is that the brit is not considered complete unless a drop of blood is actually drawn. The standard medical methods of circumcision through constriction do not meet the requirements of the halakhah for brit milah, because they cause hemostasis , i.
Moreover, circumcision alone, in the absence of the brit milah ceremony, does not fulfill the requirements of the mitzvah. A Milah L'shem giur is a "Circumcision for the purpose of conversion".
In Orthodox Judaism , this procedure is usually done by adoptive parents for adopted boys who are being converted as part of the adoption or by families with young children converting together. It is also required for adult converts who were not previously circumcised, e. The conversion of a minor is valid in both Orthodox and Conservative Judaism until a child reaches the age of majority 13 for a boy, 12 for a girl ; at that time the child has the option of renouncing his conversion and Judaism, and the conversion will then be considered retroactively invalid.
He must be informed of his right to renounce his conversion if he wishes. If he does not make such a statement, it is accepted that the boy is halakhically Jewish.
Orthodox rabbis will generally not convert a non-Jewish child raised by a mother who has not converted to Judaism. The laws of conversion and conversion-related circumcision in Orthodox Judaism have numerous complications, and authorities recommend that a rabbi be consulted well in advance. In Conservative Judaism , the Milah l'Shem giur procedure is also performed for a boy whose mother has not converted, but with the intention that the child be raised Jewish.
This conversion of a child to Judaism without the conversion of the mother is allowed by Conservative interpretations of halakha.
Conservative Rabbis will authorize it only under the condition that the child be raised as a Jew in a single-faith household.
Department of Health, New York State. Early Christianity Judaism Islam Jesus. About one-third of males in the United States are circumcised using this process. The ritual of metzitzah is found in Mishnah Shabbat , which lists it as one of the four steps involved in the circumcision rite. Popular Tools:.
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Circumcision surgical procedure - Wikipedia
Circumcision is a common procedure in which the skin covering the tip of the penis is surgically removed. It's usually performed on a newborn boy before he leaves the hospital, and often within the first 2 days of life. In the Jewish faith, it is performed in a special ceremony when a baby is 8 days old. Boys are born with a hood of skin, called the foreskin, covering the head glans of the penis.
In circumcision , the foreskin is removed to expose the head of the penis. It's a quick procedure that causes very little bleeding and stitches aren't needed. Older boys can be circumcised, but the procedure is a bit more involved.
In the United States, many newborn males are circumcised. Circumcision is not medically required, but studies show that it lowers certain health risks. Most parents make the decision about circumcision based on cultural, religious, or personal reasons such as whether other male family members have been circumcised. Once you decide your baby will be circumcised, discuss it with the doctor who'll perform the procedure.
Many circumcisions on newborns are done by obstetricians, but pediatricians, family practitioners, urologists, neonatologists, and pediatric surgeons also can do them. Most healthy babies can be circumcised within 1 to 2 days after birth. However, circumcision is delayed for babies with certain medical conditions.
Your child's examining pediatrician or neonatologist will decide if your newborn should wait to be circumcised. If it is OK for your child to have a circumcision, the doctor will review any risks, potential benefits, and instructions on caring for your baby after the procedure.
The doctor will also ask about any family history of bleeding disorders like hemophilia or von Willebrand's disease. Ask the doctor to explain anything you don't understand. When you feel comfortable with the information and your questions have been fully answered, you will be asked to sign an informed consent form, which states that you understand the procedure and its risks and give your permission for your child to have the circumcision. Circumcisions are often performed in the hospital's nursery treatment room.
Some parents choose to be in the treatment room during the circumcision, while others prefer to wait for the baby to be returned to the nursery. If you'd like to be in the room, let your doctor know. A baby is typically awake for circumcision.
He is usually positioned in a molded plastic seat that helps hold him safely in place. The penis and surrounding skin are cleansed with antiseptic before the procedure begins. Several safe and effective pain-control methods can lessen a baby's pain during circumcision. Ask your doctor about the type of pain control your baby will have ahead of time. A local anesthetic is used to numb the area of the penis where the incision will be made. Because of the numbing cream, your baby will feel very little as the needle goes through the skin.
To further reduce stress and discomfort, the nurse may give your baby a "sucrose pacifier" a pacifier dipped in sugar water , which has been shown to reduce newborn distress. Sometimes acetaminophen is given to help with pain.
Babies may also feel better when swaddled. In newborns, circumcision can be performed in several ways. The most common techniques protect the head of the penis with special devices while the foreskin is removed.
Your doctor will determine which method is appropriate. A special instrument called a probe is used to separate the foreskin from the head of the penis they are usually joined by a thin membrane. Next a bell-shaped device is fitted over the head of the penis and under the foreskin an incision may be made in the foreskin to allow this. The foreskin is then pulled up and over the bell and a clamp is tightened around it to reduce blood flow to the area. A scalpel is used to cut and remove the foreskin.
Again, the foreskin is separated from the head of the penis with a probe. The foreskin is then pulled out in front of the head and inserted through a metal clamp with a slot in it. The clamp is held in place while the foreskin is cut with a scalpel and remains for a few minutes after this to make sure that bleeding has been controlled.
This method is similar to the Gomco clamp technique. After separation with a probe, the plastic bell is placed under the foreskin and over the head of the penis.
A piece of suture is tied directly around the foreskin, which cuts off the blood supply to the foreskin. A scalpel may then be used to cut off the extra foreskin, but the plastic ring is left on. About 6 to 12 days later it falls off on its own. After a circumcision, doctors will apply petroleum ointment over the wound and wrap the baby's penis in gauze to keep the wound from sticking to his diaper unless the doctors have used the Plastibell method, which requires no dressing.
Your baby will usually be brought to you shortly after the procedure. There is very little bleeding after circumcision, no matter which technique is used. Though you may see a little bit of blood oozing from the edge of the incision or on the diaper when you first take the dressing off, this will generally stop on its own.
Your baby's penis may be sore for a few days after the procedure, so be gentle when bathing him. Never use astringent and special bath products. Most doctors recommend keeping the area clean with warm water.
If poop gets on the penis, soapy water can be used to gently wipe it away. If there is a dressing on the incision, apply a new one with petroleum jelly whenever you change a diaper for the first day or two. Even after the dressing is no longer needed, you should put a dab of petroleum jelly on the penis or on the front of the diaper for 3 to 5 days.
This can help avoid discomfort from rubbing and sticking to the diaper. It usually takes between 7 to 10 days for a circumcised penis to heal from the procedure. Until it does, the tip might be raw or yellowish.
Call your doctor right away if you notice any of the following:. In the first year of life, a circumcised infant is less likely to get a urinary tract infection. It may be easier to keep a circumcised penis clean and uninfected, though boys who don't have circumcisions can be taught to properly clean beneath the foreskin once it becomes retractable usually by puberty.
Later in life, studies show that circumcised men may also be at lower risk for developing cancer of the penis although the disease is rare. Circumcision may lower the risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases STDs from an infected female partner. A circumcision is considered a safe procedure with minimal, if any, risks. Most of the time, there are no complications.
When your child is having any kind of procedure or surgery, it's understandable to be a little uneasy. But it helps to know that circumcisions are common procedures and complications are rare.
A child who has a circumcision typically heals without any difficulty or health problems. If you have any questions about circumcision, talk with your doctor. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD. Larger text size Large text size Regular text size.