Although there are many different approaches to learning, there are three basic types of learning theory: behaviorist, cognitive constructivist, and social constructivist. This section provides a brief introduction to each type of learning theory. The theories are treated in four parts: a short historical introduction, a discussion of the view of knowledge presupposed by the theory, an account of how the theory treats learning and student motivation, and, finally, an overview of some of the instructional methods promoted by the theory is presented. Toggle navigation. FAQs About Us.
Students need Oral cancer survival rates more than abstract concepts and self-contained knowledge ; they need to be exposed to learning that is practiced in the context of authentic activity and culture. All of the experiences Dick insertion eventually culminate into complex and abstract ideas. Discovery by learners is emphasized. Lampert successfully did this by having students explore mathematical concepts that are continuous with their background knowledge. Outside the realm of educational psychologytechniques to directly observe the functioning of the brain during the learning process, such as event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imagingare used in educational neuroscience. Aachen, Germany: Shaker Verlag,pp. Metacognition can sometimes be difficult for students to achieve, but it is an important goal for social constructivist learning because it gradually frees learners from dependence on expert teachers to guide their learning. Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment. The surface structure is the Learning model teaching theory vs a problem is framed.
Fist aid practice. Navigation
Ideally, the Instructional Design theory you choose must align with the needs of your online learners and your client's learning objectives. Already have an account? This theory also involves "scaffolding", whereby Learning model teaching theory vs are gradually introduced to more complex ideas and concepts as the lesson progresses. A scientist studying the behavior of ants in a colony, for example, can have set theories on how the ants gather and store food. Cookie Preferences Accept Cookies. A student who used to be reinforced for acting like a clown Learning model teaching theory vs class may stop clowning once classmates stop paying attention to the antics. These are culture, language, and the zone of proximal development. Frequently or rarely? If I am a student who is being Bear sex search reinforced for contributing to discussions, I must also learn to discriminate when to make verbal contributions from when not to make them—such as when classmates or the teacher are theorry with other Learing. It turns out that this is the case for psychological constructivism, which offers important Learinng about the appropriate sequencing of learning and development. Constructivism is the idea that people are responsible Learing creating their own understanding of the world and using what they know based on previous experiences in the process of linking new information to these experiences.
Several ideas and priorities, then, affect how we teachers think about learning, including the curriculum, the difference between teaching and learning, sequencing, readiness, and transfer.
- Learning theories are an organized set of principles explaining how individuals acquire, retain, and recall knowledge.
- By signing in with LinkedIn, you're agreeing to create an account at elearningindustry.
- By signing in with LinkedIn, you're agreeing to create an account at elearningindustry.
- There are many different theories regarding the way people learn.
- Several ideas and priorities, then, affect how we teachers think about learning, including the curriculum, the difference between teaching and learning, sequencing, readiness, and transfer.
- Scientific studies and discoveries come about after a well-thought-out hypothesis and thoroughly conducted experiments that produce models and theories.
Several ideas and priorities, then, affect how we teachers think about learning, including the curriculum, the difference between teaching and learning, sequencing, readiness, and transfer. In the case of issues about classroom learning, for example, educational psychologists have developed a number of theories and concepts that are relevant to classrooms, in that they describe at least some of what usually happens there and offer guidance for assisting learning.
It is helpful to group the theories according to whether they focus on changes in behavior or in thinking. The distinction is rough and inexact, but a good place to begin. The second category can be further divided into psychological constructivism changes in thinking resulting from individual experiences , and social constructivism, changes in thinking due to assistance from others.
The rest of this chapter describes key ideas from each of these viewpoints. As I hope you will see, each describes some aspects of learning not just in general, but as it happens in classrooms in particular. The first time that I drove a car, for example, I was concerned primarily with whether I could actually do the driving, not with whether I could describe or explain how to drive.
For another example: when I reached the point in life where I began cooking meals for myself, I was more focused on whether I could actually produce edible food in a kitchen than with whether I could explain my recipes and cooking procedures to others. And still another example—one often relevant to new teachers: when I began my first year of teaching, I was more focused on doing the job of teaching—on day-to-day survival—than on pausing to reflect on what I was doing.
Even as a beginner, there are times when it is more important to be able to describe how to drive or to cook than to actually do these things. And there definitely are many times when reflecting on and thinking about teaching can improve teaching itself. If you are teaching, you will need to attend to all forms of learning in students, whether inner or outward.
In classrooms, behaviorism is most useful for identifying relationships between specific actions by a student and the immediate precursors and consequences of the actions. This fact is not a criticism of behaviorism as a perspective, but just a clarification of its particular strength or usefulness, which is to highlight observable relationships among actions, precursors and consequences. One variety of behaviorism that has proved especially useful to educators is operant conditioning, described in the next section.
Operant conditioning focuses on how the consequences of a behavior affect the behavior over time. It begins with the idea that certain consequences tend to make certain behaviors happen more frequently. If I compliment a student for a good comment made during discussion, there is more of a chance that I will hear further comments from the student in the future and hopefully they too will be good ones! If a student tells a joke to classmates and they laugh at it, then the student is likely to tell more jokes in the future and so on.
The original research about this model of learning was not done with people, but with animals. One of the pioneers in the field was a Harvard professor named B. Skinner observed the behavior of rather tame laboratory rats not the unpleasant kind that sometimes live in garbage dumps. He or his assistants would put them in a cage that contained little except a lever and a small tray just big enough to hold a small amount of food.
The lever released a small pellet of food, which the rat would promptly eat. Gradually the rat would spend more time near the lever and press the lever more frequently, getting food more frequently.
Eventually it would spend most of its time at the lever and eating its fill of food. See below. Skinner and other behavioral psychologists experimented with using various reinforcers and operants. They also experimented with various patterns of reinforcement or schedules of reinforcement , as well as with various cues or signals to the animal about when reinforcement was available. It turned out that all of these factors—the operant, the reinforcement, the schedule, and the cues—affected how easily and thoroughly operant conditioning occurred.
For example, reinforcement was more effective if it came immediately after the crucial operant behavior, rather than being delayed, and reinforcements that happened intermittently only part of the time caused learning to take longer, but also caused it to last longer. Consider the following examples. In most of them the operant behavior tends to become more frequent on repeated occasions:. These examples are enough to make several points about operant conditioning.
First, the process is widespread in classrooms—probably more widespread than teachers realize. Second, learning by operant conditioning is not confined to any particular grade, subject area, or style of teaching, but by nature happens in every imaginable classroom. Third, teachers are not the only persons controlling reinforcements. This leads to the fourth point: that multiple examples of operant conditioning often happen at the same time.
A case study in Appendix A of this book The decline and fall of Jane Gladstone suggests how this happened to someone completing student teaching. Because operant conditioning happens so widely, its effects on motivation are a bit complex. Operant conditioning can encourage intrinsic motivation , to the extent that the reinforcement for an activity is the activity itself. The combining of both is noticeable in the examples in the previous paragraph. In each example, it is reasonable to assume that the student felt intrinsically motivated to some partial extent, even when reward came from outside the student as well.
This was because part of what reinforced their behavior was the behavior itself—whether it was making faces, running a mile, or contributing to a discussion. At the same time, though, note that each student probably was also extrinsically motivated , meaning that another part of the reinforcement came from consequences or experiences not inherently part of the activity or behavior itself.
The boy who made a face was reinforced not only by the pleasure of making a face, for example, but also by the giggles of classmates. The track student was reinforced not only by the pleasure of running itself, but also by knowledge of his improved times and speeds. It is true that external reinforcement may sometimes alter the nature or strength of internal or intrinsic reinforcement, but this is not the same as saying that it destroys or replaces intrinsic reinforcement.
But more about this issue later! Key concepts about operant conditioning: Operant conditioning is made more complicated, but also more realistic, by several additional ideas.
They can be confusing because the ideas have names that sound rather ordinary, but that have special meanings with the framework of operant theory. Among the most important concepts to understand are the following:. The paragraphs below explain each of these briefly, as well as their relevance to classroom teaching and learning. Extinction refers to the disappearance of an operant behavior because of lack of reinforcement.
A student who stops receiving gold stars or compliments for prolific reading of library books, for example, may extinguish i. A student who used to be reinforced for acting like a clown in class may stop clowning once classmates stop paying attention to the antics.
Generalization refers to the incidental conditioning of behaviors similar to an original operant. If a student gets gold stars for reading library books, then we may find her reading more of other material as well—newspapers, comics, etc.
Generalization is a lot like the concept of transfer discussed early in this chapter, in that it is about extending prior learning to new situations or contexts. Discrimination means learning not to generalize.
In operant conditioning, what is not overgeneralized i. If I am a student who is being complimented reinforced for contributing to discussions, I must also learn to discriminate when to make verbal contributions from when not to make them—such as when classmates or the teacher are busy with other tasks. Discrimination learning usually results from the combined effects of reinforcement of the target behavior and extinction of similar generalized behaviors.
In a classroom, for example, a teacher might praise a student for speaking during discussion, but ignore him for making very similar remarks out of turn. In operant conditioning, the schedule of reinforcement refers to the pattern or frequency by which reinforcement is linked with the operant. If a teacher praises me for my work, does she do it every time, or only sometimes?
Frequently or only once in awhile? In respondent conditioning, however, the schedule in question is the pattern by which the conditioned stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus. If I am student with Mr Horrible as my teacher, does he scowl every time he is in the classroom, or only sometimes?
Frequently or rarely? Behavioral psychologists have studied schedules of reinforcement extensively for example, Ferster, et al. For teachers, however, the most important finding may be this: partial or intermittent schedules of reinforcement generally cause learning to take longer, but also cause extinction of learning to take longer.
This dual principle is important for teachers because so much of the reinforcement we give is partial or intermittent. Typically, if I am teaching, I can compliment a student a lot of the time, for example, but there will inevitably be occasions when I cannot do so because I am busy elsewhere in the classroom. For teachers concerned both about motivating students and about minimizing inappropriate behaviors, this is both good news and bad.
Once the inappropriate behavior is learned, though, it will take somewhat longer to disappear even if everyone—both teacher and classmates—make a concerted effort to ignore or extinguish it. Finally, behavioral psychologists have studied the effects of cues. In operant conditioning, a cue is a stimulus that happens just prior to the operant behavior and that signals that performing the behavior may lead to reinforcement.
Reinforcement was associated with pressing a lever when, and only when, the light was on. In classrooms, cues are sometimes provided by the teacher deliberately, and sometimes simply by the established routines of the class. Calling on a student to speak, for example, can be a cue that if the student does say something at that moment, then he or she may be reinforced with praise or acknowledgment.
But if that cue does not occur—if the student is not called on—speaking may not be rewarded. In more everyday, non-behaviorist terms, the cue allows the student to learn when it is acceptable to speak, and when it is not. Behaviorist models of learning may be helpful in understanding and influencing what students do, but teachers usually also want to know what students are thinking , and how to enrich what students are thinking.
For convenience these are called psychological constructivism and social constructivism or sometimes sociocultural theory. The main idea of psychological constructivism is that a person learns by mentally organizing and reorganizing new information or experiences.
The organization happens partly by relating new experiences to prior knowledge that is already meaningful and well understood. Stated in this general form, individual constructivism is sometimes associated with a well-known educational philosopher of the early twentieth century, John Dewey — Although Dewey himself did not use the term constructivism in most of his writing, his point of view amounted to a type of constructivism, and he discussed in detail its implications for educators.
He also argued that a curriculum could only be justified if it related as fully as possible to the activities and responsibilities that students will probably have later , after leaving school.
To many educators these days, his ideas may seem merely like good common sense, but they were indeed innovative and progressive at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Piaget described learning as interplay between two mental activities that he called assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the interpretation of new information in terms of pre-existing concepts, information or ideas. A preschool child who already understands the concept of bird , for example, might initially label any flying object with this term—even butterflies or mosquitoes.
Assimilation is therefore a bit like the idea of generalization in operant conditioning, or the idea of transfer described at the beginning of this chapter. Assimilation operates jointly with accommodation , which is the revision or modification of pre-existing concepts in terms of new information or experience. The preschooler who initially generalizes the concept of bird to include any flying object, for example, eventually revises the concept to include only particular kinds of flying objects, such as robins and sparrows, and not others, like mosquitoes or airplanes.
At any given time, cognitive equilibrium consists of an ever-growing repertoire of mental representations for objects and experiences.
Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate our new experiences. These examples are enough to make several points about operant conditioning. Name required. Behavior theorists define learning simply as the acquisition of a new behavior or change in behavior. Eventually it would spend most of its time at the lever and eating its fill of food.
Learning model teaching theory vs. Navigation
Cognitivism is a learning theory developed by Jean Piaget in which a child develops cognitive pathways in understanding and physical response to experiences. In this theory, students learn most effectively through reading text and lecture instruction.
Constructivism is the idea that people are responsible in creating their own understanding of the world and using what they know based on previous experiences in the process of linking new information to these experiences.
People use these experiences and new information to construct their own meaning. Humanism focuses on the individual as the subject and asserts that learning is a natural process that helps a person reach self-actualization.
Scenarios and role modeling are important factors in humanistic learning, as are experiences, exploring and observing others.
Connectivism is a relatively new learning theory, developed and based upon the idea that people process information by forming connections. How can we help you? Something Has Gone Terribly Wrong. Please Try Later. Sign In.
How we use LinkedIn We use LinkedIn to ensure that our users are real professionals who contribute and share reliable content. We also use this access to retrieve the following information: Your full name. Your primary email address. You can revoke this access at any time through your LinkedIn account. Sign In with LinkedIn. Already have an account? Login here. Instructional Design. Discover, choose and compare the top eLearning Authoring Tools Providers! Find the right vendor.
Major theories and models of learning | Educational Psychology
There are many different theories regarding the way people learn. This section will very briefly explore some of them in alphabetical order , which you might like to research further and try out with your own learners. The posting below is a nice summary of various learning theories.
Published by Sage Publishing Company. Copyright by Ann Gravells and Susan Simpson. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission. What works with one group or individual learner might not work with another. You might find at first you are teaching the way you were taught at school, college or university. It might have suited you at the time, or it might have had a detrimental effect. Behaviorism assumes a learner is essentially passive, and will be shaped through positive or negative reinforcement.
Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior. Skinner believed that behavior is a function of its consequences, i. The behavior should not be repeated if negative feedback is given. Giving immediate feedback, whether positive or negative, should enable your learners to behave in a certain way. Cognitivism focuses on what happens in the mind such as thinking and problem-solving. New knowledge is built upon prior knowledge and learners need active participation in order to learn.
Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as a computer: information comes in, is processed, and learning takes place. Constructivism is about learning being an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it.
The learner brings past experiences and cultural factors to a current situation and each person has a different interpretation and construction of the knowledge process. It asserts three major themes. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally the teacher, or an older adult, but the MKO could also be a peer, a younger person, or even information from the internet.
According to Vygotzky, learning occurs in this zone. Experiential learning is about the learner experiencing things for themselves and learning from them. Kolb proposed a four stage model known as the experiential learning cycle. It is a way by which people can understand their experiences and, as a result, modify their behavior. It is based on the idea that the more often a learner reflects on a task, the more often they have the opportunity to modify and refine their efforts.
The process of learning can begin at any stage and is continuous, i. This theory suggests that without reflection, people would continue to repeat their mistakes. This is the doing stage.
Your values, attitudes and beliefs can influence your thinking at this stage. This is the stage of thinking about what you have done. This is the stage of planning how you will do it differently.
This is the redoing stage based upon experience and reflection. Humanism is an approach that believes learning is seen as a personal act to fulfill potential. Humanists believe that it is necessary to study a person as a whole, particularly as they grow and develop over their lifetime. Rogers and others developed the theory of facilitative learning based on a belief that people have a natural human eagerness to learn and that learning involves changing your own concept of yourself.
This theory suggests that learning will take place if the person delivering it acts as a facilitator. The facilitator should establish an atmosphere in which her learners feel comfortable, are able to discuss new ideas and learn from their mistakes, as long as they are not threatened by external factors.
Formal teaching is known as pedagogy , where the teacher directs all the learning. Informal teaching is known as andragogy , where the learner is the focus, for example, via group work and discussions. Pedagogy does not always allow for individual knowledge to be taken into account and often focuses on teaching the same topic at the same time to all learners.
Knowles et al. An andragogical approach places more emphasis on what the learner is doing. John Dewey believed that formal schooling was falling short of its potential. He emphasized facilitating learning through promoting various activities rather than by using a traditional teacher-focused method.
He believed that learners learnt more from guided experiences than from authoritarian instruction. He subscribed to a pragmatist theory which placed the learner as the focus rather than the teacher. Dewey argued that learning is life , not just preparation for life. Using different delivery approaches, combined with practical activities, will help reach the different learning preferences of the individuals you are teaching.
Laird suggests that learning occurs when the senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste are stimulated. This is easy if you are teaching a practical session, but not so if you are teaching a theoretical subject.
However, if you are willing to try something different, you can make your sessions really interesting and memorable. Whenever possible, link theory to practice, and use practical activities based around the subject and the areas of interest of your learners. If you can make your session fun and interesting, relating to all the senses, it will help your learners remember the topics better. Research the theories explained here and compare and contrast them. Find out what other relevant theories there are.
Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Laird, D Approaches to Training and Development. Harlow: Addison Wesley. Rogers, CR Freedom to Learn for the 80s. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill. Skinner, BF About Behaviorism.
San Francisco, CA: Knopf. Skip to content Skip to navigation. Tomorrow's Professor Postings. Teaching and Learning Theories. Tomorrow's Teaching and Learning. Message Number:. Folks: The posting below is a nice summary of various learning theories. Regards, Rick Reis reis stanford. Behaviorism Behaviorism assumes a learner is essentially passive, and will be shaped through positive or negative reinforcement. Cognitivism Cognitivism focuses on what happens in the mind such as thinking and problem-solving.
Constructivism Constructivism is about learning being an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it.
Think of these themes as: 1. Humanism Humanism is an approach that believes learning is seen as a personal act to fulfill potential. Pedagogy and andragogy Formal teaching is known as pedagogy , where the teacher directs all the learning. Pragmatism John Dewey believed that formal schooling was falling short of its potential. Sensory theory Laird suggests that learning occurs when the senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste are stimulated. Extension Activity Research the theories explained here and compare and contrast them.
Connect with us on Social Media Facebook. Google Plus.