Frontiers in Neuroscience. We said afd was a 'myth' that Coca- Cola 'Rots your teeth'. Patrick Cleary. Moreover, we respected the code of professional ethics signed by French psychologists in and revised in to take into account the ethical questions in research. Murphy, Roger Kurlan,and James Leckman. These were:. Revue Medicale Suisse in French. Welcome back to WARC!
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In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a Emergency flight nurses understanding of where Vintage dolce baroque style recorder strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings in order to better warn drivers of an approaching Papeg, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night. If you write about statistics of paper writing services, you can ask local managers to participate in your survey. Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to Paper add adult case study new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research studyyou csae describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. Nevertheless, women tend not to be diagnosed as children because they never made trouble. Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in and your professor's preferences, the concluding Paler may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented audlt to practice or on the essay's central research problem. Does the case offer a new direction in future research? It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from xdd and to succinctly explain how the person Paper add adult case study to examining the research problem. Most of the workers are losing their jobs since the companies cannot handle many workers anymore. I tried this out on my roomate also. It will provide the best understanding of the issue for you and your audience because clients and managers of studyy company usually have different points of view on a situation which occurs.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
- The term case study refers to both a method of analysis and a specific research design for examining a problem, both of which are used in most circumstances to generalize across populations.
- In: Philosophy and Psychology.
- The reason is because most of the time, someone has something to gain.
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Problems to Avoid Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. All in all, creation of a case study is not an easy task. I have tried different vitamin products like Usana, supplements like L-Tryptophan, green food vitamin capsules, and things like this. The works ordered from Paper4college.
Paper add adult case study. Types of Case Studies
The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks from overseas reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support?
A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way. Be sure to cite any prior studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for investigating the research problem. The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your case study.
Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is more common to combine a description of the findings with the discussion about their implications.
The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important.
Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.
Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research.
The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.
Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings It is important to remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases.
Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research. Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant.
This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address.
More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here. Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.
As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and needs for further research.
Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:. Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in and your professor's preferences, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented applied to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.
Problems to Avoid. Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this.
There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were on social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda. Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood differently than preserving access to a scarce resource. Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.
If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals.
When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices.
Salkind, editor. Case Study Research in Practice. Levin, editors. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations.
Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:. Flyvbjerg, Bent. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Writing a Case Study This guide provides advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.
The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition The term case study refers to both a method of analysis and a specific research design for examining a problem, both of which are used in most circumstances to generalize across populations.
How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in this writing guide.
Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following: Does the case represent an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East.
Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls. Does the case provide important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice.
For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
Does the case challenge and offer a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in practice.
A case may offer you an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously.
For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to the study a case in order to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
Does the case provide an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem.
For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings in order to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
Does the case offer a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for exploratory research that points to a need for further examination of the research problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem.
For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important! A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a particular village can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community throughout rural regions of east Africa. The case could also point to the need for scholars to apply feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation.
Structure and Writing Style The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies.
Introduction As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions: What was I studying?
Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis you have chosen to address the problem. The format of the paper is as follows: 1.
Intro 2. Clarification of terms plato's view compared to mine 3. Executive 5. Socity at large 6. You are the new personnel Director. Write a report to the board in which you analyze the current state of the company, addressing the following questions.
Toggle navigation Custom Research Center Help when you need it. Buy custom research paper Get free quote. Examples of College Case Study Papers One of the most effective educational tools is reality simulation.
CASE STUDY:Seven Seas has sales boost with newspaper advertising - Newsworks
Metrics details. Suicidality has been under-researched in autism spectrum disorders ASD. Most studies have linked increased suicidality in ASD to psychiatric comorbidities such as depression. Here we investigated, from a neuropsychological and clinical standpoint, the relationship between core ASD symptoms, i. We report the case of a year-old male with ASD who attempted suicide twice, in the absence of other psychiatric diagnoses.
His behavior and communication skills were rigid. His suicidality was characterized by a rigid, detailed, and pervasive thinking pattern, akin to restricted interests. Consistently, from a neuropsychological standpoint, we found below-average planning and attention skills, and mind-reading skills were rigid and lacked spontaneity. Our case-study suggests that specific clinical and neuropsychological dimensions might be related to suicidal behaviors in ASD.
Clinically, the repetitive and rigid suicide-oriented thinking of our patient was not part of a depressive episode.
Instead, it followed a purely logical, inflexible, and pervasive reasoning pattern focused on a topic that fascinated him — i. From a neuropsychological standpoint, restrictive suicide-oriented thinking in our patient seems to be related to attention and executive anomalies that have been linked to repetitive and restricted behaviors in ASD. New tools need to be developed to assess persistent suicidal thoughts in this population, as they might be related to intrinsic features of ASD.
Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by two clusters of symptoms: i. A growing number of studies has shown that the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in adults with ASD is high [ 2 ], but only a few studies have focused on the risk of suicide in this population.
The prevalence of attempted suicide in ASD has been reported to be higher than in the general population [ 3 , 4 ], but also higher than the prevalence reported in schizophrenia [ 5 ] or in depression [ 6 ].
Individuals with ASD constitute between 7. Although some studies have suggested that ASD is independently associated with increased risk of suicide [ 3 ], due to some of its core symptoms — e. Risk of suicide in individuals with ASD is also increased in the case of intellectual giftedness [ 4 , 13 , 15 , 16 ], self-harming behaviors [ 7 ], family history of suicidality [ 14 , 17 ], experience of violence, harassment or victimization [ 8 , 15 , 16 , 17 ], and low self-esteem [ 18 ].
Other risk factors include male gender [ 7 ], belonging to an ethnic minority or having a lower socio-economic background [ 8 ]. In this paper we present a detailed clinical and neurocognitive description of a year-old male patient admitted in an inpatient psychiatric unit for attempting suicide. No diagnosis had been established prior to his hospitalization, although it was his second suicide attempt. ASD diagnosis was established during the hospitalization. This suicide attempt occurred in the absence of a depressive episode or any other psychiatric disorder, raising the hypothesis of a specific link between his suicidal behavior and the core characteristics of ASD.
More specifically, we will explore the link between socio-communicational impairments and restricted ideas and the emergence and persistence of suicidal thoughts. From a neuropsychological standpoint, executive dysfunctions, such as cognitive rigidity and poor decision-making skills, may constitute a vulnerability trait for the risk of suicide [ 19 , 20 ].
Deficient mindreading and emotion recognition skills have also been found to be related to suicide attempts [ 21 ]. Both executive and social cognition dysfunctions have been reported in a large number of studies in children [ 22 , 23 ] and adults with ASD [ 24 , 25 ]. We will investigate here whether the persistent suicidal ideation in this patient might be associated with cognitive rigidity, restricted interests, and socio-communicational impairments, assessed both clinically and via neuropsychological tasks.
A is a year-old single man, who lives with his mother. He was admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit in , following a suicide attempt by hanging.
He also gave a similarly meticulous, unemotional breakdown of his reasoning in the presence of his mother. His suicidal thoughts were not part of a depressive episode: no reduced activity, low energy or mood or anhedonia were reported. On the eve of the suicide attempt, the patient went to school, and performed his usual daily activities, including his hobbies e. He saw his psychiatrist and his mental status was stable. No trigger for his hanging attempt was identified. During the dinner before said attempt, he had a dispassionate philosophical discussion with his mother on the topic of suicide, in which he advocated his right to end his life.
He reports that he had not yet decided to attempt suicide by then, but thought it was his responsibility to prepare his mother to the possibility. The attempt failed due to a mechanical problem with the rope and the hanging point.
He then quietly went to bed and fell asleep. However, he forgot to switch off the bathroom light and to remove the rope, leading his mother to find out what had happened during the night. His love remained unrequited and the girl had a short romantic relationship with a friend Mr. His outpatient psychiatric follow-up began at that time. No psychotropic drugs were prescribed to him. However, his suicidal thoughts lingered, characterized by a restrictive, rigid pattern, which was not associated with a depressive mood.
When we met him, Mr. He liked school and said he had a few friends, but his relationships with his peers lacked spontaneity — i. There was a discrepancy between the content of his speech and his facial expressions, which were neutral.
His communication skills were qualitatively rigid, as it was difficult for him to grasp the implicit meaning of a number of phrases. His speech was monotone, but his vocabulary was rich, precise, and displayed no morphological abnormalities. He exhibited an adherence to non-functional routines; for example, he always took his shower in the exact same way, and studied on the same table since childhood. Sensory abnormalities were also reported concerning his hearing, temperature perception and nociception.
For example, Mr. Restricted and all-consuming interests were also reported: as a child, Mr. When we met him, his spontaneous communication was limited. His discussion topics were limited to his areas of interest i. His developmental history, as well the current clinical picture, were consistent with ASD diagnosis according to the DSM A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered.
Sustained and divided attention performance were average on the Test for Attentional Performance [ 29 ]. Set-shifting, verbal initiation and inhibition abilities were above average, as were verbal and spatial working memory abilities.
Planning was efficient but required much time, as assessed by the Tower of London [ 30 ]; verbal and non-verbal long-term learning were also efficient. However, peculiarities were observed in the California Verbal Learning Test [ 31 ], as he learned the word list in order of appearance, instead of clustering words in a semantic fashion.
Furthermore, his learning curve was irregular, owing to attention and executive difficulties as well as to idiosyncratic learning strategies.
His copying style of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Fig. Performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test [ 33 ], assessing facial emotion recognition, was particularly slow, hence not spontaneous. Overall, our results are suggestive of attentional and processing speed difficulties; planning skills and facial emotion recognition are efficient, but costly and lack spontaneity; information processing is concrete and detail-based; mentalization abilities are rigid.
We reported here a case study which illustrates the relationship between increased suicidality in a young man recently diagnosed with ASD, and some of the core clinical and neuropsychological features of ASD. Importantly, unlike previous studies, e. The absence of psychiatric comorbidities raises the question of whether the persistence of suicidal thoughts was associated with ASD-related features, which had not been diagnosed prior to his second suicide attempt.
Both clinically and neuropsychologically, our patient presented with features typically found in individuals with high functioning ASD.
Aside from executive and social cognition abnormalities, he presented with a detailed-focused information processing style, and a heterogenous intellectual functioning, with very high verbal abilities, whereas processing speed was slow, which has been described in other studies with individuals with high functioning ASD [ 36 ]. Social and communication impairment has been previously reported to be a risk factor for suicide attempts in ASD [ 10 ]. Emotion dysregulation in adults with ASD is an understated clinical feature, which has been associated with non-suicidal self-injury [ 37 ], but, to our knowledge, studies focusing on the relationship between emotion dysregulation and suicidality in ASD are lacking.
From a neuropsychological standpoint, his emotion and mind-reading skills lacked spontaneity, reflected by the abnormally long time required to complete the tasks. The rigidity of his suicidal thoughts may be linked to the lack of behavioral flexibility observed here both clinically and neuropsychologically. His suicidality was characterized by a rigid, detailed, and pervasive thinking pattern, akin to restricted interests and behaviors. Moreover, our patient was unable to fully grasp the impact of his behavior on others, such as his mother, and the descriptions of his suicidal thoughts followed the same pattern regardless of the context.
Past studies have provided evidence for the relationship between executive dysfunction, i. Our case study is consistent with such findings, as his suicidal thoughts were particularly repetitive, hence rigid and restricted, in nature. Recently, Unruh et al. In our case study, the repetitive and rigid suicide-oriented thinking of our patient was not part of a depressive episode. His suicidal thoughts remained present despite numerous psychotherapy sessions. Like restricted interests and behaviors in ASD [ 40 ], his suicidal thoughts were particularly treatment-resistant.
It is important to note that our patient had not been diagnosed with ASD prior to his second suicide attempt, and this might have contributed to the severity of both attempts. Kato et al. Late diagnosis in our case might have contributed to the persistence of stressors related to undiagnosed ASD in everyday functioning, on the one hand, but also to the lethal means used in both attempts; even though by the time of the second attempt he had a psychiatric follow-up, no diagnosis had been established.
During the disclosure interview, suicidality and emotion dysregulation were explained within the framework of the ASD diagnosis; akin to findings reported in past studies e. Although insight into ASD-related difficulties remained poor, probably because of cognitive inflexibility [ 42 ], diagnostic disclosure increased hope in terms of support that could be offered for his communication and emotion regulation difficulties.
Suicidal ideation lingered, but was no longer as pervasive, owing to the fact that his thoughts were also focused on other topics i. Suicidality in people with ASD remains poorly understood, and under-researched.
Our case-study provides evidence for the involvement of specific clinical and neuropsychological dimensions as risk factors for suicidal behaviors in ASD. Because ours is a case study, we cannot ascertain the relationship between our cognitive and clinical findings, specifically suicidal ideation.
Studies are needed to empirically address the relationship between suicidality and neurocognitive traits of ASD. Moreover, new tools need to be developed to assess and offer support to individuals with ASD presenting with persistent suicidal thoughts, as they might be related to intrinsic features of ASD. This is crucial as suicidality is particularly difficult to assess in ASD, given their peculiar clinical presentations, and the absence of early-warning signs due to social and communication impairment [ 8 ].
Association AP. American Psychiatric Pub; Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry.