Rubber nylon war effort-Moore Memorial Public Library

For American women in World War II, a shortage of stockings was a minor inconvenience, but it did affect daily life. When they came on the market nationwide on May 15, , over , pairs were sold on the first day. Japan was the sole supplier of silk to the US, and deteriorating trade relations in cut off the supply. Silk was used for parachutes and was the best material for powder bags for naval guns. When the guns were fired, the silk completely disintegrated without leaving any damaging residue.

Rubber nylon war effort

Rubber nylon war effort

Rubber nylon war effort

Rubber nylon war effort

The arms race and the Cold War continued to funnel millions of dollars into an ever-growing defense industry. Collection of Scrap Materials Housing Crunch. Jamie lynn bikini pics the paint, unless you got wet or something, it didn't—it stayed on. Rosie the Riveter became the image that called women to do what had traditionally been considered men's work. Lou Ringer: Oh. Rubber nylon war effort also serve -- you who farm, you who pray and sacrifice. Tires were needed for all kinds of vehicles and aircraft. After the loss of the natural rubber supply, the RRC called for an annual production oftons of general purpose synthetic rubber to be manufactured by the four large rubber companies. The similarities and differences between the cultures never cease to amaze me.

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How interesting! ACS Scholars Scholarships for underrepresented minority students majoring in undergraduate chemistry-related Rubber nylon war effort. Extension Activities There were many other ways children did their part for the cause. While American soldiers were fighting abroad, those left at home, including children, contributed to the war effort in many ways. They work better with wooden shoes, anyway! President Franklin D. The committee, headed by financier Bernard M. Prices were generally low, but export Julia bond anal queen of natural rubber from British Malaya introduced by the British incoupled with the resultant price increase, sparked the establishment of modest synthetic rubber research programs in the Soviet Union, Germany, and the United States between and Women treated their remaining stockings with great care, often reserving them for special occasions. Answer Actually, Americans back home raised money for the war effort by buying bonds, collecting newspapers, metal, glass, dffort, nylon stockings, raising their own Rubber nylon war effort to that they would not take away food from the soldiers victory gardens. Participating U. With U. Awards Recognizing and celebrating excellence in chemistry and celebrate your achievements. The wqr and commitment on the home front was a necessary way to keep momentum alive for everyone.

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  • Where are you on the Gilder Lehrman Institute timeline?
  • America raised money for the war effort in World War I and II by using propaganda, getting more jobs, and the biggest one was to raise taxes.
  • Nearly two centuries into the industrial age there is still a healthy demand for silk, cotton and wool.
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  • When they came on the market on May 15, , over , pairs were sold on the first day.

Sat : 10 a. Sun : Closed. Making Do: Rationing. Poster for the U. Department of Agriculture promoting victory gardens Photo from the Library of Congress. Poster distributed to gasoline stations and garages to educate motorists on need for fuel rationing. Photo from the Library of Congress. Poster promoting commuting and working together as part of the war effort.

This Resource Requires Authentication! Maximize image Restore image. Collection of Scrap Materials Housing Crunch. The war effort consumed so many resources that shortages of food, clothing, gas and rubber products like tires and rubber bands became commonplace. Rationing of a variety of essential items from leather to gasoline to ketchup and coffee was instituted by the federal government to keep inflation down, preserve necessary goods for the war effort and to fairly distribute items in short supply.

Although he promised "an adequate and healthy diet" for all Americans, he also stressed that the military would need a quarter of all the food produced by the country, including half its canned fruits and vegetables. Individuals were issued ration books with sheets of perforated stamps to obtain household staples such as sugar, meat and gas. To prevent hoarding, stamps could only be redeemed for a specific length of time. Meat was in very bad supply.

It all went to the military. You just didn't have much meat. And back in those days, everybody had a cow. Audio Clip: Your browser does not support the audio element. Gwen Atwood Uzzell's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element. Download file. Sugar rationing began in January , just weeks after war was declared. Initially, everyone was limited to just a half-pound a week, although the ration limit was increased somewhat within a few months.

At that time, it came in white blocks; yellow dye had to be kneaded into it in order to give it a butter-like appearance. But it was soft and spreadable, an advantage over butter. Lou Ringer: Oh. The butter was so cute. We would get the box of—the yellow went to war, so you were given your own little packet of yellow. You would get what looked like a pound of lard, and you would work this yellow into it, so your butter would be yellow.

Lou Ringer's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element. Lou Ringer's Oral History Transcript. Coffee drinkers could buy only a pound every five weeks, which meant restraining themselves to less than a cup of coffee a day.

A caffeine fix meant rebrewing the grounds. They tried mutton and turkey, which were never rationed. They experimented with corn syrup and molasses as sweeteners. Interest swelled in less popular vegetables such as eggplant and squash. Casseroles were very common. Baked meatloaf became standard fare, as well as canned baked beans served with frankfurters or Spam. Wickard urged citizens to cultivate vegetable gardens — dubbed victory gardens — as a means of supplementing the nation's distressed food supply.

Government agencies, 4-H groups and public schools widely promoted the home gardens; it was practically unpatriotic to not have one. Flower beds, backyards and window boxes soon became home to vegetables. In , Americans planted Automobile registration fell by more than , in This was followed by the order to limit civilian tire sales to 35, per month, less than 1 percent of the 4 million a month typically produced. Soon enough, the OPA banned driving for pleasure altogether.

I remember one time that the family was driving to Austin in our Chevrolet. We couldn't buy new cars during that time. Maybe it was a '38 Chevrolet. Anyway, I remember it was old. We were not happy—the girls were not very happy with it. But we were driving to Austin and one of the tires blew out, so my dad got out and put the spare on and we went several more miles and it blew out. And you couldn't just go to a store and buy a tire.

You had to have a special certificate to get one. So we drove into Austin on the rim. We just—we didn't have any choice because there was no other way to get there. And there was a song about someone in an airplane who had been shot in the war. It was called "Coming in on a Wing and a Prayer. My father almost lost his mind. Mother finally turned around and told us we'd better be quiet. The next day he had to go to the rationing board and get a special certificate to get a tire. The tire—they sold retreaded tires; they were not new rubber.

But anyway, he was only able to get one and we had to just hope we didn't have another blowout. So that was an adventure. Mary Ann Reed's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element.

Now it's not unusual to go 40, or 50, miles without a flat tire and all. But then you were having blowouts left and right and then having to try to find a tire and an inner tube and all like that.

They had devised a great big sort of semi-rigid patch to put on the inside of the tire when there was a hole in it so that the inner tube didn't poke out through a hole and get punctured. It was called a boot. People nowadays don't have the faintest idea what that was.

Lyman Reed's entire oral history interview: Your browser does not support the audio element. Lyman Reed's Oral History Transcript. Car owners could only purchase a limited amount of gas depending on their circumstance; a corresponding sticker labeling their car's category went on their windshield. According to Home Front America: Popular culture of the World War II era, the categories were: "A, non-essential for war driving; B, for commuters who drive to work but do not use their vehicles on the job; C, salesmen and delivery driving-work related; E, emergency vehicles which included clergy, police, firemen, press photographers, and journalists; T, truckers, work related; X, congressmen.

This 'X' category required no rationing at all and naturally brought widespread criticism and griping. People relied on thrift, cooperation and ingenuity to make do. They patched up old cars and tires. They carpooled. They turned to trains, so much so that railroads made a profit on passenger traffic in for the first time in 15 years. Each person was limited to three pairs per year and even then, shoe quality was poor.

Shoemakers extended the life of footwear by resoling and re-heeling them. They could even evoke the illusion of a seam down the back of a leg using a line drawn with eyebrow pencil. Bailey in The Home Front. We didn't have leather shoes because all the leather went to the servicemen so they could have shoes. I had a pair of high heels and the soles were cardboard laughs and the uppers were a sort of canvas.

Gwen Atwood Uzzell's Oral history Transcript. And with three daughters in the family, I don't think my parents got a pair of new shoes during the whole war laughs because our feet would grow and we'd have to use their stamps for shoes. But I'm always amazed to see how many shoes my grandchildren have because we had one pair.

Possibly, after the war, we were able to have two. Vivi Hoang interviewer : Did that mean, since you were the oldest, did that mean your younger sisters would get hand-me-downs? MAR: Oh yes.

Although I think we pretty well wore our shoes out. They would make—they had some fabric shoes that they made that you didn't have to have stamps for.

But if you wore them out in the wet grass, they'd fall apart, so they must have been glued together. If you were fortunate enough to have a relative or a boyfriend or somebody in the service, they could go to the commissary, maybe, and get you a pair of nylon hose. Oh, claps hands together that was a big treasure. We had to wear rayon hose. Now, I don't know whether you know what rayon is but we'd pull them on—'course, we had garter belts to fasten them to—and when you sat down in a chair like this, with your knees bent, when you got up, well, the knees were still bent like you were still sitting down laughs.

The resulting product, "Ameripol", was introduced in At this time, the United States had a stockpile of about one million tons of natural rubber, a consumption rate of about , tons per year, and no commercial process to produce a general purpose synthetic rubber. Theme Military History. Follow Us. Although rubber captured the public's imagination, there were problems.

Rubber nylon war effort

Rubber nylon war effort. Still there, or gone to get coffee???

The discovery of catalysts to accelerate the reaction, along with purification procedures and process modifications, allowed large-scale production of butadiene. The company, under the leadership of Frank A.

Howard, entered into agreements with I. Farben and, through the Joint American Study Company, exchanged technical information on synthetic rubber and other developments. Jersey Standard also had limited development rights for Buna S and administered the patents in the United States after the outbreak of war in Europe in Their collective technical knowledge was significant to the successful outcome of the synthetic rubber program.

Maximoff and Ivan Ostromislensky, had resulted in s patents for emulsion polymerization of butadiene and also of styrene. Goodrich Company scientists, under the direction of chemist Waldo L. Semon, built a pound-per-day pilot plant to copolymerize butadiene with methyl methacrylate to produce a rubber for tire applications.

The resulting product, "Ameripol", was introduced in Ray P. Dinsmore of Goodyear patented "Chemigum", a synthetic rubber produced in Akron, Ohio, that same year. James D. D'Ianni, also working at Goodyear, did extensive research on synthesizing a variety of monomers that could be polymerized with butadiene. John Street directed the Firestone program for polymerizing butadiene and styrene and built a synthetic rubber pilot plant for tire applications. Still, natural rubber remained the mainstay of U.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt was well aware of U. The RRC set objectives for stockpiling rubber, conserving the use of rubber in tires by setting speed limits, and collecting scrap rubber for reclamation. At this time, the United States had a stockpile of about one million tons of natural rubber, a consumption rate of about , tons per year, and no commercial process to produce a general purpose synthetic rubber.

Conserving, reclaiming, and stockpiling activities could not fill the gap in rubber consumption. After the loss of the natural rubber supply, the RRC called for an annual production of , tons of general purpose synthetic rubber to be manufactured by the four large rubber companies.

The situation became even more critical as the need for rubber for the war effort increased. With stocks of rubber dwindling and conflicts arising over the best technical direction to follow, Roosevelt appointed a Rubber Survey Committee in August to investigate and make recommendations to solve the crisis.

The committee, headed by financier Bernard M. Baruch, also included scientists James B. Conant, president of Harvard University, and Karl T. Compton, president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

In the remarkably short time of one month, Baruch's committee made its recommendations, two of which were critical to solving the rubber crisis: the appointment of a rubber director who would have complete authority on the supply and use of rubber, and the immediate construction and operation of 51 plants to produce the monomers and polymers needed for the manufacture of synthetic rubber.

William M. Tompkins, a vice president of United States Rubber Company, as assistant deputy. The technology chosen for synthetic rubber production was based on Buna S research because Buna S could be mixed with natural rubber and milled on the same machines, and because the raw materials the monomers were available.

This rubber was particularly suited for tire treads because it resisted abrasive wear; and it retained sharper impressions in molds, calender rolls, and extruders than natural rubber.

However, the synthetic rubber was more difficult to make, had less tackiness, and required more adhesive in making a tire than natural rubber. These problems had to be overcome to produce a reliable general purpose rubber. On March 26, , the representatives of the companies and the U. Because GR-S required different compounding conditions, accelerators, antioxidants, and types and amounts of carbon black than natural rubber, the program's leaders realized that a research and development program would be necessary to solve the existing and potential problems of GR-S manufacture.

Robert R. Williams of Bell Telephone Laboratories organized and coordinated the rubber industry research effort, which included participation by the National Bureau of Standards, Bell Labs, and such major research universities as the University of Illinois, University of Minnesota, and University of Chicago.

The first of many Copolymer Research Committee meetings was held December 29, , in Akron, Ohio, to share the latest information among the organizations working on the various aspects of synthetic rubber research.

The affiliations of the attendees at this meeting demonstrate the wide participation in the program. During the combined effort, the companies shared the findings of more than patents.

Participating U. University laboratories developed better analytical methods to achieve better quality control and performed fundamental research on the mechanism of GR-S polymerization and the chemical structure of rubber. Academic and industrial contributors clarified the factors that influenced the polymerization rate, polymer molecular weight, and weight distribution.

The rubber companies had the technology and the responsibility to build the plants to produce synthetic rubber. The government provided an equally important component, the capital.

Burt, a B. Goodrich engineer, chaired the committee that designed and built the first government GR-S plant. Several plants were scattered across the country, some for polymerization, others for the production of the monomers. The initial plants were built and brought on-stream in a record time of nine months. Firestone produced the program's first bale of synthetic rubber on April 26, , followed by Goodyear on May 18, United States Rubber Corporation on September 4, and Goodrich on November In , these four plants produced 2, tons of synthetic rubber.

By , the United States was producing about , tons per year of synthetic rubber, 85 percent of which was GR-S rubber. Research continued after the war ended in August Synthetic rubber was improved and, after the wartime plants served again during the Korean Conflict, became an integral part of the rubber industry.

GR-S production returned to private hands in when the government sold the plants. Synthetic rubber is a vital part of the transportation, aerospace, energy, electronics, and consumer products industries.

The American Chemical Society designated the U. Additional plaques were presented to the five companies listed below that participated in the development of GR-S rubber.

The text of the plaque commemorating the program reads:. Synthetic Rubber Program. Learn more: About the Landmarks Program. We would be blind if we did not see the efforts now in progress on the part of many companies to have a part in the development of a large new industry with vast postwar possibilities.

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National Historic Chemical Landmark. Asked in Fundraising What is third world debt fundraising activities? When countries that have enough raise types of actives try to raise fun activites to raise money for devoloping countries Asked in World War 2 How did the government raised money for world war 2?

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Conscription - same as Viet Nam war. Congress raise money to fight in World War 1, is taxes. They needed to tax U. Among other things Asked in Business Accounting and Bookkeeping, Rwanda, Fundraising What fundraising activities have taken place to help raise money to reduce Third World debt?

The employer from America should send you a Western Union money order. These can be cashed anywhere in the world. Type your answer here Loan money to the government for the war effort. Asked in World War 1 Advertising for liberty bonds during world war 1 encouraged citizens to? The United States of America.

Americans bought war bonds. At least 2 dollars an hour! Industrial production was ramped up to high levels, pouring money into the economy Trending Questions.

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Commemorative Booklet PDF. When the natural rubber supply from Southeast Asia was cut off at the beginning of World War II, the United States and its allies faced the loss of a strategic material. With U. In Akron and other U. The quest to synthesize materials that can be substituted for naturally occurring substances has long been a challenge to chemists. By , natural dyes from plants had been replaced by synthetic dyes derived from coal tar, celluloid had taken the place of ivory, and Bakelite was replacing insect-based shellac.

Nonetheless, these products were produced on a relatively small scale. By contrast, natural rubber was a commodity of vast economic and military importance. Automobiles, a key element of American social life, could not run without rubber tires, and by the s, the U.

A modern nation could not hope to defend itself without rubber. The construction of a military airplane used one-half ton of rubber; a tank needed about one ton and a battleship, 75 tons. Each person in the military required 32 pounds of rubber for footwear, clothing, and equipment. Tires were needed for all kinds of vehicles and aircraft. The American rubber industry became the largest and the most technologically advanced in the world.

By the late s, the United States was using half the world's supply of natural rubber, most of it coming from Southeast Asia.

There was a real danger the war would be lost unless American scientists and technologists were able to replace almost a million tons of natural rubber with a synthetic substitute within 18 months. To work this industrial and scientific miracle, the U.

The resulting synthetic rubber program was a remarkable scientific and engineering achievement. The partnership of the government, industry, and academe expanded the U. The impact on the rubber industry proved to be permanent. Today 70 percent of the rubber used in manufacturing processes is synthetic and a descendant of the general purpose synthetic GR-S government rubber-styrene produced by the United States in such great quantity during World War II.

Natural rubber has been known for centuries. It is obtained primarily from the latex of the rubber tree, which is native to South America. Rubber gained its name after its introduction to Europe and its use for erasing pencil marks. It was soon called Indian "rubber". The first major use for rubber was balloon cloth, fabric coated with rubber dissolved in turpentine.

In , Charles Macintosh, using naphtha, a better solvent, laminated sticky rubber cloth and fabric together to make raincoats. Although rubber captured the public's imagination, there were problems. Rubber froze rock hard in the winter and melted in the summer.

In the early s, there was great demand for goods made from this waterproof gum, but the "rubber fever" ended abruptly because of product failures. It was Charles Goodyear who discovered a way to cure natural rubber to make it more useful.

Working on a kitchen stove in , he mixed rubber with sulfur and white lead. This process, vulcanization, made rubber more resistant to changes in temperature and accelerated the growth of the rubber industry. By , Asian rubber plantations, started from seeds brought from the Amazon Basin, displaced rubber from the wild trees of South America and became the primary source for a growing market. Michael Faraday had shown in that rubber had the empirical formula C 5 H 8.

In , Greville Williams obtained a liquid with the same formula by distilling rubber; he called it "isoprene. However, Bouchardat had obtained isoprene from natural rubber; the first truly synthetic rubber was made by William Tilden three years later.

Tilden obtained isoprene by cracking turpentine, but the process of converting it to rubber took several weeks. In Francis Matthews and Carl Harries discovered, independently, that isoprene could be polymerized more rapidly by sodium.

In scientists at the Bayer Company in Germany embarked on a program to make synthetic rubber. By , they were producing methyl rubber, made by polymerizing methylisoprene. Methyl rubber was manufactured on a large scale during World War I, when a blockade halted the import of natural rubber to Germany. Because methyl rubber was an expensive and inferior imitation, production was abandoned at the war's end. Through the s, synthetic rubber research was influenced by fluctuations of the price of natural rubber.

Prices were generally low, but export restrictions of natural rubber from British Malaya introduced by the British in , coupled with the resultant price increase, sparked the establishment of modest synthetic rubber research programs in the Soviet Union, Germany, and the United States between and Researchers at I.

Farben, a German conglomerate that included Bayer, focused on the sodium polymerization of the monomer butadiene to produce a synthetic rubber called "Buna" "bu" for butadiene and "na" for natrium, the chemical symbol for sodium. They discovered in that Buna S butadiene and styrene polymerized in an emulsion , when compounded with carbon black, was significantly more durable than natural rubber. Because of its working relationship with I. Farben, the giant oil company Standard Oil of New Jersey Jersey Standard was an important go-between in the transatlantic transfer of synthetic rubber technology.

In the early s, chemists at Jersey Standard began research and development on the production of butadiene from petroleum. Their work involved dehydrogenation, a reaction that removes hydrogen atoms from hydrocarbon molecules.

The discovery of catalysts to accelerate the reaction, along with purification procedures and process modifications, allowed large-scale production of butadiene. The company, under the leadership of Frank A. Howard, entered into agreements with I. Farben and, through the Joint American Study Company, exchanged technical information on synthetic rubber and other developments. Jersey Standard also had limited development rights for Buna S and administered the patents in the United States after the outbreak of war in Europe in Their collective technical knowledge was significant to the successful outcome of the synthetic rubber program.

Maximoff and Ivan Ostromislensky, had resulted in s patents for emulsion polymerization of butadiene and also of styrene. Goodrich Company scientists, under the direction of chemist Waldo L. Semon, built a pound-per-day pilot plant to copolymerize butadiene with methyl methacrylate to produce a rubber for tire applications.

The resulting product, "Ameripol", was introduced in Ray P. Dinsmore of Goodyear patented "Chemigum", a synthetic rubber produced in Akron, Ohio, that same year. James D. D'Ianni, also working at Goodyear, did extensive research on synthesizing a variety of monomers that could be polymerized with butadiene.

John Street directed the Firestone program for polymerizing butadiene and styrene and built a synthetic rubber pilot plant for tire applications. Still, natural rubber remained the mainstay of U. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was well aware of U. The RRC set objectives for stockpiling rubber, conserving the use of rubber in tires by setting speed limits, and collecting scrap rubber for reclamation.

At this time, the United States had a stockpile of about one million tons of natural rubber, a consumption rate of about , tons per year, and no commercial process to produce a general purpose synthetic rubber. Conserving, reclaiming, and stockpiling activities could not fill the gap in rubber consumption. After the loss of the natural rubber supply, the RRC called for an annual production of , tons of general purpose synthetic rubber to be manufactured by the four large rubber companies.

The situation became even more critical as the need for rubber for the war effort increased. With stocks of rubber dwindling and conflicts arising over the best technical direction to follow, Roosevelt appointed a Rubber Survey Committee in August to investigate and make recommendations to solve the crisis.

The committee, headed by financier Bernard M. Baruch, also included scientists James B. Conant, president of Harvard University, and Karl T. Compton, president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the remarkably short time of one month, Baruch's committee made its recommendations, two of which were critical to solving the rubber crisis: the appointment of a rubber director who would have complete authority on the supply and use of rubber, and the immediate construction and operation of 51 plants to produce the monomers and polymers needed for the manufacture of synthetic rubber.

William M. Tompkins, a vice president of United States Rubber Company, as assistant deputy. The technology chosen for synthetic rubber production was based on Buna S research because Buna S could be mixed with natural rubber and milled on the same machines, and because the raw materials the monomers were available. This rubber was particularly suited for tire treads because it resisted abrasive wear; and it retained sharper impressions in molds, calender rolls, and extruders than natural rubber.

However, the synthetic rubber was more difficult to make, had less tackiness, and required more adhesive in making a tire than natural rubber. These problems had to be overcome to produce a reliable general purpose rubber.

On March 26, , the representatives of the companies and the U. Because GR-S required different compounding conditions, accelerators, antioxidants, and types and amounts of carbon black than natural rubber, the program's leaders realized that a research and development program would be necessary to solve the existing and potential problems of GR-S manufacture.

Robert R.

Rubber nylon war effort