An enema , also known as a clyster , is an injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum. In standard medicine, the most frequent uses of enemas are to relieve constipation and for bowel cleansing before a medical examination or procedure;  also, they are employed as a lower gastrointestinal series also called a barium enema ,  to check diarrhea,  as a vehicle for the administration of food, water or medicine, as a stimulant to the general system, as a local application and, more rarely, as a means of reducing temperature,  as treatment for encopresis , and as a form of rehydration therapy proctoclysis in patients for whom intravenous therapy is not applicable. In other contexts, enemas are used by some alternative health therapies, used for enjoyment, chiefly as part of sexual activities, but also in sadomasochism, as well as simply for pleasure, used to intoxicate with alcohol, used to administer drugs for both recreational and religious reasons, and used for punishment. As bowel stimulants, enemas are employed for the same purposes as orally administered laxatives : To relieve constipation ; To treat fecal impaction ; To empty the colon prior to a medical procedure such as a colonoscopy. A large volume of enema  can be given to cleanse as much of the colon as possible of feces.
Mineral oil is both a lubricant and a laxative, which makes it especially useful in enemas that are used to treat constipation, or when the anus is sore or if Courtey cox all nude are hemorrhoids. In other contexts, enemas are What is an enema by some alternative health therapies, used for enjoyment, chiefly as part of sexual activities, but also in sadomasochism, as well as simply for pleasure, used to intoxicate with alcohol, used to administer drugs for both recreational and religious reasons, and used for punishment. What Happens During Defecography? Wickham RJ. There are plenty of holistic and nontraditional advocates for enemas as a beneficial method for internal cleansing. Br Med J. Consult with a physician immediately regarding any rectal bleeding. One of the many types of medical specialists was an Iri, the Shepherd of the Anus.
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Vetrano, B. For your What is an enema and privacy, this link has been disabled. National Prescribing Service. You What is an enema hear a doctor or healthcare provider tell you to use Males peeing outdoors stool softener or laxative for easing constipation. Understand what a cleansing enema is. Practitioners believe the accumulation of fecal matter in the large intestine leads to ill health. Hold the water in. Colonic or high colonic are synonymous with enema. Here's what you're missing out on! A Anonymous Jan 13, Learn about who may benefit from this Wht, what it entails, the potential risks, and more. Method Eggert playboy. This belief became popular at the advent of the 20th century, and some still adhere to it. Many pharmacies sell enema kits, and these are also available online. Applied Nursing Research.
An enema administration is a technique used to stimulate stool evacuation.
- An enema , also known as a clyster , is an injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.
- Bags are nice but not as easy to clean.
- An enema is a procedure used to help stimulate the bowels in the hope of relieving constipation or to cleanse the digestive tract.
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An enema administration is a technique used to stimulate stool evacuation. It is a liquid treatment most commonly used to relieve severe constipation.
The process helps push waste out of the rectum when you cannot do so on your own. Enemas are available for purchase at pharmacies for home use, but you should ask a doctor or nurse for specific instructions to avoid injury. Other types of enemas are administered to clean out the colon and better detect colon cancer and polyps.
If you have concerns or worsening symptoms after an enema, ask a doctor right away. Constipation is a common gastrointestinal condition. It occurs when the colon is unable to remove waste through the rectum. People with this condition have three or fewer bowel movements over a seven-day period. Daily exercise also helps to prevent constipation.
An enema administration is most commonly used to clean the lower bowel. However, this is normally the last resort for constipation treatment. If diet and exercise are not enough to keep you regular, your doctor might recommend a laxative before trying an enema.
In some cases, laxatives are used the night before an enema administration to encourage waste flow. Enemas may also be used before medical examinations of the colon. Your doctor may order an enema prior to an X-ray of the colon to detect polyps so that they can get a clearer picture. This procedure may also be done prior to a colonoscopy. The purpose of a cleansing enema is to gently flush out the colon.
It may be recommended prior to a colonoscopy or other medical examination. Constipation, fatigue, headaches, and backaches may be relieved by a cleansing enema. During a cleansing enema, a water-based solution with a small concentration of stool softener, baking soda, or apple cider vinegar is used to stimulate the movement of the large intestine. A cleansing enema should stimulate the bowels to quickly expel both the solution and any impacted fecal matter. You may be asked to fast or follow special dietary instructions in the days prior to having an enema.
Instructions may vary, depending on your doctor and your personal health needs. If you plan to administer an enema at home, make sure that all of the equipment you are using has been sterilized and that you have a lubricant on hand. Pay careful attention to the way that you prepare the enema solution.
You may have to mix it yourself with medicinal components. To lessen the pressure felt in your colon, empty your bladder before you begin the enema. You may also want to place a towel or cloth down in the area between your bathtub and your toilet, in case fluid leaks out of your bowels when you get up to empty your colon. If you are unfamiliar with enemas, you should consider having a medical professional administer one for you.
They can also offer instructions for home kits that are available over the counter at pharmacies. Check with your doctor before use. Some types of enemas are exclusively administered at medical offices. A barium enema, for example, uses a liquid compound that highlights certain areas of the gastrointestinal tract. This increases the amount of the tract that your doctor can see during an exam. Barium enemas are not used to treat constipation.
Enemas can be administered in the comfort of your own home. This way can be less expensive, but you should ask your doctor for detailed instructions beforehand. Due to the delicate nature of the procedure, a loved one should help. Enemas utilize a solution of salt water that is placed into a bag on one side of the tube. The other portion is lubed and placed directly into the rectum.
In order for the solution to reach the colon properly, hug your knees to your chest while lying on your stomach or on your side. Here are the standard instructions:. Once all of the solution is emptied into the colon, a bowel movement is expected within the hour. If you fail to expel any waste, call your doctor. You may be ordered to perform the procedure at a later time.
Successful administrations result in the expulsion of waste from the rectum. There are plenty of holistic and nontraditional advocates for enemas as a beneficial method for internal cleansing. For Western medicine at large, the verdict is still out on whether regularly administered home enemas have proven benefits.
Not much conclusive research has been done into their long-term health benefits. But keep in mind that administering enemas has risks. A barium enema can cause waste to take on a white color for a few days afterward. This is the normal effect of barium and should clear up on its own.
Forcing an enema into the rectum can cause irritation and damage to surrounding tissue. Never force the tube into the rectum. If problems persist, try administration at a later time or call your doctor.
Blood that is present in the stool after the enema may mean there is rectal damage or an underlying medical problem. Consult with a physician immediately regarding any rectal bleeding.
Your risks for enema-related complications are greater if you administer the tubes multiple times a day. The best course of action is to use the enema once a day, and around the same time every day, as directed by a doctor. This not only reduces side effects, but will also help to train your body to release waste regularly. If constipation continues for more than a few days, call your physician.
In extremely rare cases, the incorrect administration of an enema can cause an embolism or blockage to form. Pulmonary embolisms , which occur in the lungs, can be fatal. In other rare cases, an incorrectly administered barium enema can result in perforation of the rectum. Some people find that they have several additional bowel movements in the hours after an enema. For this reason, many plan to stay home for the rest of the day after an enema is administered.
But for the most part, you may carry on with your regular routine after the enema process is complete. Enemas are usually used for constipation, which may be caused from not eating a diet rich in fiber at least 25 grams daily.
Including fruits and vegetables regularly in your diet should help with constipation. There are also fiber supplements such as Metamucil. Probiotics and laxatives will also relieve constipation and are good alternatives to enemas. You may hear a doctor or healthcare provider tell you to use a stool softener or laxative for easing constipation.
How do you know which one to pick…. A coffee enema is a type of colon cleanse. Learn about who may benefit from this practice, what it entails, the potential risks, and more. Eating plenty of fiber has numerous health benefits.
Here are 22 healthy high-fiber foods that can help you lose weight and reduce your risk of…. If you have infrequent or irregular bowel movements, you may assume that you just need more fiber in your diet or should exercise more. Find out what…. Fiber is important for health. These 16 tips to add more fiber to your diet may improve digestion, help you lose weight and lower your risk of disease. Fiber is often recommended to relieve constipation. Although this works for many people, studies show that fiber can make constipation worse in some….
Constipation medications are available in over-the-counter and prescription versions. Find out which options might work well for you. Do you know the difference between soluble and insoluble fiber? Find out and learn how to get your recommended daily dietary fiber. A barium enema is a test that allows your doctor to look at your intestinal tract.
What is an enema administration used for? Preparing for an enema. How an enema is administered. Enema administration results. What the research says about enemas.
Potential risks of enema administration. Q: What are some alternatives to enemas? A: Enemas are usually used for constipation, which may be caused from not eating a diet rich in fiber at least 25 grams daily.
All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice. Read this next.
NHS Grampian Campaign. Method 4. This increases the amount of the tract that your doctor can see during an exam. Blood that is present in the stool after the enema may mean there is rectal damage or an underlying medical problem. Place a small amount of olive oil or organic lubricant on the tip of the nozzle for easy insertion. Learn more
What is an enema. What is an enema kit?
Enemas: How to give at home
An enema , also known as a clyster , is an injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum. In standard medicine, the most frequent uses of enemas are to relieve constipation and for bowel cleansing before a medical examination or procedure;  also, they are employed as a lower gastrointestinal series also called a barium enema ,  to check diarrhea,  as a vehicle for the administration of food, water or medicine, as a stimulant to the general system, as a local application and, more rarely, as a means of reducing temperature,  as treatment for encopresis , and as a form of rehydration therapy proctoclysis in patients for whom intravenous therapy is not applicable.
In other contexts, enemas are used by some alternative health therapies, used for enjoyment, chiefly as part of sexual activities, but also in sadomasochism, as well as simply for pleasure, used to intoxicate with alcohol, used to administer drugs for both recreational and religious reasons, and used for punishment.
As bowel stimulants, enemas are employed for the same purposes as orally administered laxatives : To relieve constipation ; To treat fecal impaction ; To empty the colon prior to a medical procedure such as a colonoscopy.
A large volume of enema  can be given to cleanse as much of the colon as possible of feces. Such enemas' mechanism consists of the volume of the liquid causing rapid expansion of the intestinal tract in conjunction with, in the case of certain solutions, irritation of the intestinal mucosa , resulting in powerful peristalsis and a feeling of extreme fecal urgency. The enema is retained until there is a tremendous, uncontrollable urge to defecate, at which time the recipient may expel any fecal matter loosened by the instilled solution together with the solution itself.
The procedure may cause uncomfortable bloating [ citation needed ] and cramping. Plain water can be used, simply functioning mechanically to expand the colon, thus prompting evacuation. Castile soap is commonly added because its irritation of the colon's lining increases the urgency to defecate. Glycerol is a specific bowel mucosa irritant serving to induce peristalsis via a hyperosmotic effect. Normal saline is least irritating to the colon, at the opposite end of the spectrum.
Like plain water, it simply functions mechanically to expand the colon, but having a neutral concentration gradient, it neither draws electrolytes from the body, as happens with plain water, nor draws water into the colon, as occurs with phosphates. Thus, a salt water solution can be used when a longer period of retention is desired, such as to soften an impaction. Equal parts of milk and molasses heated together to slightly above normal body temperature have been used. Mineral oil functions as a lubricant and stool softener, but may have side effects including rectal skin irritation and leakage of oil  which can soil undergarments for up to 24 hours.
Arachis oil peanut oil enema is useful for softening stools which are impacted higher than the rectum. Bisacodyl stimulas enteric nerves to cause colonic contractions.
Dantron is a stimulant drug and stool softener  used alone or in combinations in enemas. Docusate  . Mineral oil is used as a lubricant because most of the ingested material is excreted in the stool rather than being absorbed by the body. Sodium phosphate. Available at drugstores; usually self-administered.
Buffered sodium phosphate solution draws additional water from the bloodstream into the colon to increase the effectiveness of the enema. But it can be rather irritating to the colon, causing intense cramping or "griping. Known adverse effects. Sorbitol pulls water into the large intestines causing distention, thereby stimulating the normal forward movement of the bowels.
Sorbitol is found in some dried fruits and may contribute to the laxative effects of prunes. However, also sold under the name "Micralax", is a preparation containing sorbitol rather than glycerol;  which was initially tested in preparation for sigmoidoscopy. TAI , also termed retrograde irrigation , is designed to assist evacuation using a water enema  as a treatment for persons with bowel dysfunction, including fecal incontinence or constipation, especially obstructed defecation.
By regularly emptying the bowel using transanal irrigation,  controlled bowel function is often re-established to a high degree, thus enabling development of a consistent bowel routine. An international consensus on when and how to use transanal irrigation for people with bowel problems was published in , offering practitioners a clear, comprehensive and simple guide to practice for the emerging therapeutic area of transanal irrigation.
The term retrograde irrigation distinguishes this procedure from the Malone antegrade continence enema , where irrigation fluid is introduced into the colon proximal to the anus via a surgically created irrigation port. Patients who have a bowel disability, a medical condition which impairs control of defecation , e. While simple techniques might include a controlled diet and establishing a toilet routine,  a daily enema can be taken to empty the colon, thus preventing unwanted and uncontrolled bowel movements that day.
In a lower gastrointestinal series an enema that may contain barium sulfate powder or a water-soluble contrast agent is used in the radiological imaging of the bowel. Called a barium enema , such enemas are sometimes the only practical way to view the colon in a relatively safe manner. Failure to expel all of the barium may cause constipation or possible impaction  and a patient who has no bowel movement for more than two days or is unable to pass gas rectally should promptly inform a physician and may require an enema or laxative.
The administration of substances into the bloodstream. This may be done in situations where it is undesirable or impossible to deliver a medication by mouth, such as antiemetics given to reduce nausea though not many antiemetics are delivered by enema.
Additionally, several anti-angiogenic agents, which work better without digestion, can be safely administered via a gentle enema. The topical administration of medications into the rectum, such as corticosteroids and mesalazine used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Administration by enema avoids having the medication pass through the entire gastrointestinal tract , therefore simplifying the delivery of the medication to the affected area and limiting the amount that is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Rectal corticosteroid enemas are sometimes used to treat mild or moderate ulcerative colitis. They also may be used along with systemic oral or injection corticosteroids or other medicines to treat severe disease or mild to moderate disease that has spread too far to be treated effectively by medicine inserted into the rectum alone. Improper administration of an enema can cause electrolyte imbalance with repeated enemas or ruptures to the bowel or rectal tissues resulting in internal bleeding.
However, these occurrences are rare in healthy, sober adults. Internal bleeding or rupture may leave the individual exposed to infections from intestinal bacteria. Blood resulting from tears in the colon may not always be visible, but can be distinguished if the feces are unusually dark or have a red hue.
If intestinal rupture is suspected, medical assistance should be obtained immediately. The enema tube and solution may stimulate the vagus nerve , which may trigger an arrhythmia such as bradycardia. Enemas should not be used if there is an undiagnosed abdominal pain since the peristalsis of the bowel can cause an inflamed appendix to rupture. There are arguments both for and against colonic irrigation in people with diverticulitis , ulcerative colitis , Crohn's disease , severe or internal hemorrhoids or tumors in the rectum or colon , and its usage is not recommended soon after bowel surgery unless directed by one's health care provider.
Regular treatments should be avoided by people with heart disease or renal failure. Colonics are inappropriate for people with bowel, rectal or anal pathologies where the pathology contributes to the risk of bowel perforation. Recent research has shown that ozone water, which is sometimes used in enemas, can immediately cause microscopic colitis.
A recent case series  of 11 patients with five deaths illustrated the danger of phosphate enemas in high-risk patients. Enema entered the English Language c. Clyster syringes were used from the 17th century or before to the 19th century, when they were largely replaced by enema bulb syringes, bocks, and bags. The first mention of the enema in medical literature is in the Ancient Egyptian Ebers Papyrus c. One of the many types of medical specialists was an Iri, the Shepherd of the Anus.
Many medications were administered by enemas. The god Thoth , according to Egyptian mythology, invented the enema. The Olmec from their middle preclassic period 10th through 7th centuries BCE through the Spanish Conquest used trance-inducing substances ceremonially, and these were ingested via, among other routes, enemas administered using jars.
As further described below in religious rituals , the Maya in their late classic age 7th through 10th centuries CE used enemas for, at least, ritual purposes, Mayan sculpture and ceramics from that period depicting scenes in which, injected by syringes made of gourd and clay, ritual hallucinogenic enemas were taken. For combating illness and discomfort of the digestive tract, the Mayan also employed enemas, as documented during the colonial period, e.
The indigenous peoples of North America employed tobacco smoke enemas to stimulate respiration, injecting the smoke using a rectal tube.
A rubber bag connected with a conical nozzle, at an early period, was in use among the indigenous peoples of South America as an enema syringe,  and the rubber enema bag with a connecting tube and ivory tip remained in use by them while in Europe a syringe was still the usual means for conducting an enema. In Babylonia, by BCE, enemas were in use, although it appears that initially they were in use because of a belief that the demon of disease would, by means of an enema, be driven out of the body.
In China, c. Insert a bamboo tube three or four inches long into the rectum and inject the mixture" are his directions, according to Wu Lien-teh. In India, in the fifth century CE, Sushruta enumerates the enema syringe among surgical instruments described. Early Indian physicians' enema apparatus consisted of a tube of bamboo, ivory, or horn attached to the scrotum of a deer, goat, or ox. Hippocrates BCE frequently mentions enemas, e. In the first century BCE the Greek physician Asclepiades of Bithynia wrote "Treatment consists merely of three elements: drink, food, and the enema".
In the second century CE the Greek philosopher Celsus recommended an enema of pearl barley in milk or rose oil with butter as a nutrient for those suffering from dysentery and unable to eat  and Galen mentions enemas in several contexts. In medieval times appear the first illustrations of enema equipment in the Western world , a clyster syringe consisting of a tube attached to a pump action bulb made of a pig bladder.
In the 15th century simple piston syringe clysters came into use. Beginning in the 17th century enema apparatus was chiefly designed for self-administration at home and many were French as enemas enjoyed wide usage in France.
When clyster syringes were in use in Europe, the patient was placed in an appropriate position kneeling, with the buttocks raised, or lying on the side ; a servant or apothecary would then insert the nozzle into the anus and press the plunger, resulting in the liquid remedy generally, water , but also some other preparations being injected into the colon. Because of the embarrassment a woman might feel when showing her buttocks and possibly her genitals, depending on the position to a male apothecary, some contraptions were invented that blocked all from the apothecary's view except for the anal area.
Another invention was syringes equipped with a special bent nozzle, which enabled self-administration, thereby eliminating the embarrassment. Clysters were administered for symptoms of constipation and, with more questionable effectiveness, stomach aches and other illnesses.
More prayed for her recovery, and then. In an enema bag prepared from a pig's or beef's bladder attached to a tube was described by Johann Jacob Woyts as an alternative to a syringe. In the 18th century Europeans began emulating the indigenous peoples of North America's use of tobacco smoke enemas to resuscitate drowned people.
Clysters were a favourite medical treatment in the bourgeoisie and nobility of the Western world up to the 19th century. As medical knowledge was fairly limited at the time, purgative clysters were used for a wide variety of ailments , the foremost of which were stomach aches and constipation.
More generally, clysters were a theme in the burlesque comedies of that time. According to Claude de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon , clysters were so popular at the court of King Louis XIV of France that the duchess of Burgundy had her servant give her a clyster in front of the King her modesty being preserved by an adequate posture before going to the comedy.
However, he also mentions the astonishment of the King and Mme de Maintenon that she should take it before them. In the 19th century many new types of enema administration equipment were devised, including the bulb enema. Later there came to be a device to allow gravity to infuse the solution into the recipient, consisting of a rubber bag or bucket connected to a hose with a nozzle at the other end to insert into the patient's anus, the bag or bucket being held or hung above the patient.
These continue to be used, although rubber has been replaced by modern materials and the bags, at least in hospital use, are disposable. In the late 20th century the microenema was invented, this being a disposable squeeze bottle with contents that cause the body to draw water into the colon, e. The term "colonic irrigation" is commonly used in gastroenterology to refer to the practice of introducing water through a colostomy or a surgically constructed conduit as a treatment for constipation.
The same term is also used in alternative medicine where it may involve the use of substances mixed with water in order to detoxify the body. Practitioners believe the accumulation of fecal matter in the large intestine leads to ill health. In the late 19th century Dr.