Itzhak Ofek, David L. The alarming increase in drug-resistant bacteria makes a search for novel means of fighting bacterial infections imperative. An attractive approach is the use of agents that interfere with the ability of the bacteria to adhere to tissues of the host, since such adhesion is one of the initial stages of the infectious process. The validity of this approach has been unequivocally demonstrated in experiments performed in a wide variety of animals, from mice to monkeys, and recently also in humans. Here we review various approaches to anti-adhesion therapy, including the use of receptor and adhesin analogs, dietary constituents, sublethal concentrations of antibiotics and adhesin-based vaccines.
Dietary factors associated with dental erosion: a meta-analysis. The present study was Inhibits oral bacteria adhesions up of two experiments, one was an erosion experiment, and another was a microbiological assay. The cariogenic potential of Streptococcus spp. The hyaluronan capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes may also act indirectly to block adhesion, by masking adhesins and blocking their access to cellular receptors by steric hindrance . In conclusion, pellicle modification adheskons honey, or its components, or propolis did neither protect against erosion nor promote it. In another study, LTA Amature wife story instilled into the nasal cavities of mice, followed by administration of a bafteria A streptococcal suspension . Adherence of S. The recombinant protein, having a molecular weight of c.
Blonde in thong great boobs. 1 Introduction
The following discussion will provide a brief overview of the development of atherosclerosis and how oral bacteria may facilitate and enhance Inhibits oral bacteria adhesions process. Future studies are now required to determine the long-term effects of periodontal therapy on CVD outcomes. Mol Med Today. Genetic orsl of proteolysis, hemoglobin binding, and Ragin stallions gay sex of Porphyromonas gingivalis. The bacteria sink into the membrane of the epithelial cell. The reduction in inflammatory markers after periodontal therapy provides evidence that the elevated levels of systemic inflammation were due to periodontal disease rather than other inflammatory conditions and supports the hypothesis that periodontal inflammation may add to the systemic inflammatory burden of affected Inhibigs. Furthermore, plasma levels of inflammatory markers such as CRP have been shown to be a stronger predictor of future CV events than LDL levels, strengthening the importance of inflammation in the progression of atherosclerosis Prevalence of specific genotypes of Porphyromonas zdhesions fimA and Bafteria health status. Signalling Mechanism in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Microbiology. The long-term effects of periodontal therapy in relation to systemic cytokine levels are inconsistent among studies, especially with regard to the cytokines affected and the time frame at which the effect was observed.
- Before entering inside, bacteria adhere to host cells and secrete product s or structural products complementary to host.
- Post a Comment.
- In terms of the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease CVD the focus has traditionally been on dyslipidemia.
- Adhesins are cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion or adherence to other cells or to surfaces, usually the host they are infecting or living in.
Luciano S. Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. The aim of the present work was to study the in vitro effect of native and recombinant Bauhinia variegata var. Native lectin from B. Recombinant protein deposited in inclusion bodies was solubilized and subsequently purified by affinity chromatography.
Both lectins showed adhesion inhibition effect on Step. We report, for the first time, the inhibition of early adhesion of oral bacteria by a recombinant lectin. Our results support the proposed biotechnological application of lectins in a strategy to reduce development of dental caries by inhibiting the initial adhesion and biofilm formation.
Lectins can act as a tool to block microbial adhesion through the recognition of bacterial surface glycoconjugates and adsorbed biofilm components. However, many problems, including limitations in the availability of plant resources, and a complex purification process complicate the use of native lectins. Lectin production using recombinant DNA techniques is, consequently, of great interest.
The aim of the present study was to study the in vitro effects of native and recombinant forms of the B. Briefly, the seeds of B. The resultant supernatants were used in haemagglutination assays and protein quantification. The products of the ligation reaction were transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10 competent cells.
After centrifugation, the pellet was washed with buffer I. The lowest concentration required to completely agglutinate the red blood cells was determined visually. The entire instrument, including the sample chamber, was constantly flushed with N 2 gas during the operation. Buffer blank spectra were recorded under the same conditions and subtracted from the protein spectra before further analysis.
CD spectra, obtained in millidegrees, were converted to molar ellipticity. One isolated colony was then picked and inoculated into brain—heart infusion broth BHI and cultured under the same conditions described above. A consent form was obtained from all individuals who donated saliva. The assay of biofilm formation in microtitre plates was performed following the method described by O'Toole and Kolter O'Toole and Kolter , with some modifications.
The recombinant protein, having a molecular weight of c. To induce the expression of a soluble form of the protein, we studied the effects of changing the temperature during induction.
Lectin activity was analysed by rabbit erythrocyte haemagglutination. No differences were observed between the recombinant and native forms. Bauhinia variegata lectin shares characteristics similar to those from the Caesalpiniaceae family. However, there are many problems inherent to the use of native lectins, such as the limitations in the availability of plant resources and complex purification procedures.
A number of isoforms of this lectin were identified using genetic cloning and bioinformatic techniques. Purifying each isoform using conventional techniques allows definition of the functional properties and biological activities of the components of protein mixtures. Moreover, difficulties in purifying the components of these heterogeneous mixtures preclude detailed study of their multiple functions and properties.
The recombinant protein derived from B. As glycosylation cannot efficiently occur in E. In addition, CD Fig. These results corroborate with those obtained from CD studies of B.
Comparatively, the CD spectra analysis of B. Candida lectins are probably structurally similar. These results suggest that care should be taken during storage to avoid thermal denaturation of BVL.
These results were corroborated by experiments with native lectins from B. These components include teichoic and teichuronic acid, peptidoglycans and lipopolysaccharides. A study revealed that isolectin I from Lathyrus ochrus seeds binds to muramic acid and muramyl dipeptides through hydrogen bonds.
The cariogenic potential of Streptococcus spp. In addition, our group recently demonstrated inhibitory effects of seed lectins from plants of the Diocleinae subtribe, in Step. However, no studies have explored the use of recombinant lectins or have compared the properties of recombinant and native forms. In summary, we report, for the first time, the inhibition of early adhesion of oral bacteria by a recombinant lectin.
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Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Aims The aim of the present work was to study the in vitro effect of native and recombinant Bauhinia variegata var. Methods and Results Native lectin from B. Conclusion We report, for the first time, the inhibition of early adhesion of oral bacteria by a recombinant lectin. Significance and Impact of the Study Our results support the proposed biotechnological application of lectins in a strategy to reduce development of dental caries by inhibiting the initial adhesion and biofilm formation.
Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. M, molecular mass markers; lane 1, E. Haemagglutination activity Lectin activity was analysed by rabbit erythrocyte haemagglutination. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Insets give temperature dependence of the circular dichroic CD signal at nm. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Initial adherence inhibition testing for oral bacteria. The lectins were resuspended in PBS. Error bars equal standard error of the mean SEM. Conflict of interest No conflict of interest declared. Alizadeh, H.
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Neisseria meningitidis and Salmonella spp. Adhesin molecules present on bacterial surface are responsible for adhesion. A systematic review and meta-analyses on C-reactive protein in relation to periodontitis. Furthermore, Rgp causes increased vascular permeability 51 and produces a chemotactic factor to attract leukocytes to migrate into the periodontal tissues We further investigated the effects of CM on secondary S. Host—bacterial interactions in periodontal disease P.
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Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. The aim was to investigate if honey causes erosion and if salivary pellicle modified with honey, or its components, or the by-product propolis has a protective effect against dental erosion and adhesion of early bacterial colonizers.
The tested substances were: 3 types of honey, methylglyoxal MGO , hydrogen peroxide, propolis. First in the erosion experiment, human enamel specimens were covered with salivary pellicle and modified with the substances. The antimicrobial activity of each substance and their effect on early bacterial colonizer adhesion and biofilm formation were determined.
Despite a low pH, honey did not cause erosion. On the other hand, pellicle modification with the tested solutions did not protect the enamel from erosion. Microbiologically, the 3 honeys inhibited species-specific growth of oral bacteria. Propolis decreased initial attachment of Streptococcus gordonii , while one honey inhibited demineralization of enamel by biofilm.
In conclusion, pellicle modification with honey, or its components, or propolis did neither protect against erosion nor promote it. Propolis presented some bacterial adhesion inhibition. Both dental erosion and caries derive from a demineralization of the dental hard tissue, but these conditions have different aetiologies. Erosion is a result of a chemical process without the involvement of bacteria, whereas the metabolic products of bacteria cause caries.
The acquired enamel pellicle AEP has a protective effect against both caries and dental erosion 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 and the modification of the AEP, e. Other potential candidates for modifying the pellicle are ingredients of natural products or plant extracts with polyphenolic contents 8. Non-toxic and inexpensive substances are good choices to modify the pellicle, for example substances like tannic acid, Inula viscosa tea, and safflower oil 8 , 9 , 10 , Honey is one of these natural products of interest, for it contains many polyphenols Honey has been known to treat infected wounds for thousands of years Nowadays honey regains more and more attention because of its broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects, with favourable results even against Staphylococcus aureus 14 , 15 , 16 , Its antimicrobial activity is generally linked to several components, but mainly bee defensin, polyphenols or hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 , the latter being a major biomarker for the antibacterial activity in several kinds of honey However, some kinds of honey do not have this H 2 O 2 activity.
These so-called non-peroxide activity honeys have a high concentration of MGO, which is responsible for their antimicrobial activities These kinds of honey, for example the Manuka honey 17 , 20 , have sparked much interest in research. Manuka honey is collected from flowering Leptospermum scoparium manuka plants in New Zealand 17 , Its antimicrobial activity is mostly related to MGO, one of its major components 21 , In Dentistry, Manuka honey has been tested in a pilot study, where patients were asked to use a Manuka honey product during 21 days, and they presented a significant reduction in plaque score and gingivitis Propolis is also an interesting substance with antimicrobial effect Similarly to honey, it is rich in phenolic compounds: flavonoid aglycones flavones and flavanones , phenolic acids, and their esters.
In medical use, propolis has been tested for cutaneous wound healing, as well as an antimicrobial agent in oral hygiene, such as in toothpaste and mouthrinse 25 , 26 , Since propolis and honey have high phenolic contents, we have aimed at testing their capability to modify the AEP, and verify their effect on dental erosion and bacterial adhesion. Furthermore, since the antimicrobial activity in honey generally comes from H 2 O 2 , and that in Manuka honey comes from MGO, both these compounds were also tested separately.
Therefore, the present study aimed at answering the following questions:. Does a pellicle modified with different kinds of honey, H 2 O 2 , MGO, or propolis protect enamel against hardness loss when attacked by acids?
Do different kinds of honey, H 2 O 2 , MGO, or propolis inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria and bacterial attachment to enamel surfaces? Our hypotheses were that the different kinds of honey, H 2 O 2 , MGO, or propolis are not erosive to dental enamel surface and the pellicle modification with these products would have a protective effect against acids and cariogenic bacteria. The present study was made up of two experiments, one was an erosion experiment, and another was a microbiological assay.
For both parts, we used the same tested products for pellicle modification; whole mouth stimulated human saliva HS for pellicle formation; and enamel specimens from human teeth. A total of 8 groups were included in the study: 3 types of honey, 2 components of honey, propolis, and 2 control groups:. To use in pellicle modification, the honeys were diluted in HS. The pH of the MGO solution was later set to 5. As controls, we had two groups. A non-modified salivary pellicle was one control.
For the chemical properties of the solutions, we analysed their pH and calcium concentrations. The pH of all test products was determined with a pH electrode connected to Metrohm pH-meter Herisau, Switzerland. Lanthanum nitrate 4. The whole mouth stimulated human saliva HS was collected from healthy volunteers aged 18— Saliva collection was carried out in accordance with the approved guidelines and regulations of the KEK. The volunteers were informed about the use of their saliva in research, and their oral consent was obtained.
A total of enamel specimens were prepared from human molars previously stored in a pool of extracted teeth. The patients were informed about the use of their teeth and oral consent was obtained. Pellicle formation was made by incubating the specimens in 1. The specimens were then washed in deionized water, dried, and submitted to pellicle modification. Pellicle modification was made by incubating the specimens in 1. The negative control non-modified pellicle group was incubated in a humid chamber in the same conditions as the other groups.
After each time lapse, as well as at baseline, surface hardness was measured. To measure the minimal inhibitory concentrations MICs of the test substances against the different bacterial strains, each substance was serially diluted two-fold in microtiter plates.
Bacterial suspension McFarland 0. To confirm the results, suspension of each well was subcultured on Schaedler agar plates. Two different bacterial adhesion assays were made.
In one, only S. Both control groups were incubated in a humid chamber in the same conditions as the other groups. After a short dipping into 0. The procedure was repeated twice.
Then, pellicle was formed and modified again as before and after adding nutrient media, bacteria were supplemented, too. In addition, before and after the experiment, the surface hardness of the enamel specimens was measured. The specimens were always placed in the same position on the device for baseline and further measurements. Statistical analysis was made with SPSS The data showed a non-normal distribution, so between-group comparisons at the respective time-points were made with Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of single compounds with the respective control.
The table shows that, after dilution in HS, the pH increases. The change in SH after pellicle modification and erosion are presented in Fig. Statistically significant differences between the modification and the respective control are shown. Highly concentrated honey inhibited the growth of selected oral microorganisms. However, bacteria most associated with caries were inhibited only at very high concentrations whereas the MICs of the honeys were lower against commensals. Manuka honey, in comparison with the other honeys, was more growth inhibitory at lower concentration against four of the six tested bacterial species.
Regarding the adhesion of S. Modification with propolis and with Manuka honey reduced the adherence of S. Adherence of S. Statistically significant differences between the modification and the control are shown. Total bacterial count cfu, median incl. After incubation in biofilm with intermittent cleaning, SH was also analysed. The other modifications decreased the SH in median by 3. Honey, its ingredients, and propolis have been thought as preventive agents against caries and gingivitis 28 , 29 , Since some of these substances also have a low pH, this in vitro study investigated if they cause dental erosion.
We also investigated if these substances are able to modify the enamel acquired pellicle AEP leading to a protective effect against erosion and cariogenic bacteria. Moreover, when they were used to modify the AEP, they were also not able to prevent enamel dissolution when exposed to citric acid as an erosive challenge. Interestingly, pellicle modification with the Swiss midland honey was protective against cariogenic surface hardness loss.
For our material and methods standardized conditions were provided. The enamel specimens were prepared as in earlier investigation 7 , and we measured Vickers hardness to detect the enamel hardness loss, as has been used in other similar studies 31 , Our microbiological assay adhesion model used sterilized human saliva to precede the microbial adhesion on the enamel surface 33 , 34 , and the intermitted cleaning of the surface by using a soft tooth brush should have led to an in vitro representation of tooth brushing in the oral environment In this study, we used the tested honeys diluted in HS.
Because of their high viscosity, the honeys needed to be diluted to allow their use in the experiment. On the other hand, diluting the honeys with human saliva could have already caused a reaction between the active ingredients from the honeys and the proteins in the saliva. This could have led to a reduced modification of the pellicle, and a reduction in any possible protective effect that could be expected from the honeys.