Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index BMI. A cross-sectional sample of adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.
Calculation FPnotebook. Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. Although access to this website is not Boyd, the information found here is intended for use by medical providers. Heights of 1. Normal Distribution.
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Raise left leg straight back, stopping when foot is at hip Boey and thigh is Naught housewife to the floor. Audlts Weight. Weigh yourself to the nearest pound. Bodyweight exercises are a simple, effective way to improve weght, flexibility, and strength without gym machines or equipment. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Stand with feet parallel or turned out 15 degrees — whatever is most comfortable. There are 60 identifiable chemical elements present in the human body and of these only around 25 are required for life and good health. Make sure your heels do not rise off the Body weight adults. Height: Body weight adults. This section may also have questions seeking help. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
- Use this calculator for adults, 20 years old and older.
- BMI does not measure body fat directly, but research has shown that BMI is moderately correlated with more direct measures of body fat obtained from skinfold thickness measurements, bioelectrical impedance, densitometry underwater weighing , dual energy x-ray absorptiometry DXA and other methods 1,2,3.
- Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
For information about the importance of a healthy diet and physical activity in maintaining a healthy weight, visit Preventing Weight Gain. People who are overweight or obese are at higher risk for chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
Anyone who is overweight should try to avoid gaining additional weight. Additionally, if you are overweight with other risk factors such as high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high blood pressure , you should try to lose weight. Talk with your healthcare provider to determine appropriate ways to lose weight.
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Minus Related Pages. Height: Feet. Weight: Pounds. Related Resources. What is BMI? How is BMI used? Why is BMI used to measure overweight and obesity? What are some of the other ways to assess excess body fatness besides BMI? How is BMI calculated? How is BMI interpreted for adults? Is BMI interpreted the same way for children and teens as it is for adults? How good is BMI as an indicator of body fatness? If an athlete or other person with a lot of muscle has a BMI over 25, is that person still considered to be overweight?
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For example, a year-old girl who is 5 feet tall and weighs pounds has a BMI of Furthermore, many of these methods can be difficult to standardize across observers or machines, complicating comparisons across studies and time periods. Generally, females weigh less than males even though they naturally have a higher percentage of body fat. Consider taking the advice below if you need to lose a few pounds to get to your ideal weight. What is the body mass index BMI? From a standing position, slowly rise up on your toes, keeping knees straight and heels off the floor.
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Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index BMI.
A cross-sectional sample of adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as normal weight. More women perceived themselves to be obese than men in both verbal and visual perceptions.
Underestimation of body size was higher in men Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. We found considerable gender differences in body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community.
Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the course of life. Obese children are more likely to become obese adolescents, and obese adolescents are more likely to become obese adults.
These include lower wages, less likelihood of marriage, less education, and stigma. Perception of body size has been defined as the picture of our own body formed in our own mind. For example, a study[ 7 ] examined data from three surveys of Spanish adult population and reported Therefore, gaining an understanding of the body size perceptions held by people has important health implications[ 13 ] and encouraging people to perceive accurately their weight may be an effective method for managing body weight.
Many factors such as age, gender, culture, educational attainment, socio-economic status, and BMI have been reported to influence the way people perceive their body weight in the literature. Lemon et al. It has been reported that overweight male adolescents are more likely to misperceive their weight when compared with overweight female adolescents. Some social and cultural factors have been shown to explain the higher frequency of misperceived overweight and obesity in Spanish men, older individuals and those with an elementary level of education.
In Nigeria, few studies have reported the perception of weight status among urban dwellers. Such studies are needed to address the BMI related issues especially among the rural adult population since there is little data in rural population worldwide. This study was undertaken to investigate how some Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their weight status and to determine the agreement of their perception to the measured BMI. This cross-sectional survey included adults aged 18—71 years living in Igbo-Ora, a rural community in Oyo State, South-western Nigeria.
A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit participants into the study. Three of the blocks were selected using a simple random sampling technique toss of a die.
The number of people to be included in each block was determined by a probability proportional to size method. A starting point, a prominent landmark such as marketplace, church, mosque or bus station was selected in each block. The direction to take from the starting point was determined using simple random technique.
Each consecutive house was visited till the sample size for that block was attained. Research assistants indigenes of Igbo-Ora helped in the identification of landmarks demarcating the six blocks. They were also helpful in the initial social interaction with the indigenes. Statements on confidentiality were included on the informed consent form. Participants were interviewed to obtain their socio-demographic information which includes: Age, gender, occupation, and highest level of education.
The study was conducted in Choose the one that you perceive as best describing your body size, and 4 you will be shown diagrams of seven body sizes, look at them very well. Choose the one that you think best describe the way people perceive your body size.
The questions were translated into local language for those who were not literate in English or have no formal education. Each participant was asked the questions directly by the researchers. SPSS version Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, and percentage were used to present the data. Gender differences in verbal and visual perceptions were examined using Chi-square test. Differences between self and people perceptions were examined using McNemar test. Spearman correlation was used to find correlation between body size perception and measured BMI while kappa coefficient K was used to calculate degree of agreement.
For the kappa coefficient and Chi-square analysis we re-grouped BMI categories into four from five groups used in the questionnaire we combined obese and morbidly obese group.
Of the participants, The mean SD age was None were morbidly obese. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as having normal weight [ Table 2 ] on both verbal and visual perception scale. In addition, fewer women perceived themselves as underweight and overweight than men on both scales.
Only 6. More than half of the participants felt that people perceived them to have normal weight. Of the 64 people who underestimated themselves in their verbal perception, 35 perceived themselves to be underweight, 27 as normal while two perceived themselves as overweight.
Of 35 people who misclassified themselves as underweight, 31 was normal weight while two each were overweight or obese by measured BMI. Furthermore, out of 15 people who overestimated themselves in their verbal perception, two, six, four, and three perceived themselves as normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese respectively while two, six, five, and two were actually underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, respectively according to measured BMI.
Furthermore, two, three, seven, and three people overestimated themselves in their feeling of people verbal perception as normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese respectively while they were underweight, normal, overweight, and obese respectively by measured BMI. Visual misperception also varied in the level of under- and over-estimation. Fifty-five, 33, and four people underestimated themselves as underweight, normal, and overweight respectively in their visual perception while 50, 36, and 6 were normal, overweight and obese respectively by measured BMI.
Furthermore, 54, 30, and 4 people underestimated themselves in their people perception as underweight, normal, and overweight respectively while 49, 34, and 5 were normal, overweight, and obese respectively by measured BMI.
Two each overestimated themselves as overweight, obese, and morbidly obese in their visual perception while two, three, and one were normal, overweight and obese respectively by measured BMI. Although, significant gender association was not found in the pattern of misperception, men seemed to have a higher percentage of underestimation while women had higher percentage of overestimation in both types of verbal perceptions [ Table 4 ].
The reverse appears to be the case in both types of visual underestimation. Men had consistent higher values of kappa coefficient than women in both verbal and visual perceptions which indicate higher agreement. Degree of agreement and correlation matrix between weight status perception and measured BMI. This study investigated the weight perception of Nigerian adults from a rural community.
Women perceived themselves more obese than men in both verbal and visual perception. Men have a higher percentage of underestimation while women have a higher percentage of overestimation in both types of verbal perception.
Men have consistent higher values of kappa coefficient than women in both types of perception. The prevalence of overweight and obesity seem high in the present study, which suggests that overweight has reached epidemic proportion in the rural community.
This has been attributed to changing lifestyles, that is, the rural dwellers have become urbanized and westernized in their lifestyles. This was similar to the findings of previous studies,[ 13 , 25 ] who reported that It has been suggested that before a cognitive evaluation of the health advantages of weight loss can be made, the overweight individual has to be able to recognize their current body size.
This is more so in this environment due to the belief that overweight is a sign of affluence by a lot of individuals.
A phenomenon of possible importance from the perspective of health is the prevalence of misperceived overweight by BMI. As indicated in our results, the prevalence of misperceived overweight decreases with increasing BMI which was in agreement with the report of previous study.
As this study was a cross-sectional and no previous misperception prevalence studies have been carried out in this rural community, changes in the prevalence of misperception in adult overtime cannot be ascertained. It was noted in Great Britain that despite media and health campaigns aiming to raise awareness of healthy weight, increasing numbers of overweight people fail to recognize that their weight is a cause for concern.
Gender differences were observed in the pattern of misperception in the current study. Women were more likely to overestimate while men underestimated their weight in both visual and verbal perception. The observed differences were similar to that reported for Spanish, Polish, and American adults.
It is documented that social and family pressures to maintain a body image in accordance with reigning values, which equate beauty with a slender figure, affect women more strongly than men.
These place women at an advantage over men in their desire to lose weight. This shows the importance of considering the adult male population as a high-risk group for developing overweight associated with misperceived weight status. The pattern of misperception in the present study varied with previous findings.
In Black men and women both education and income were highly positively related to the body size discrepancy. The current study found that degree of agreement between measured BMI and weight perception varied with sex.
Women had a lower degree of agreement than men since men's kappa coefficients were higher than women's in all types of verbal and visual perception. Although the present study was based on the old data set, there is no published study on weight misperception of Nigerian adults living in the rural community available for referencing till date.
More so, it is likely that knowledge about healthy body weight of this rural population has not changed much. Hence, this study will be of much help for public health education and reference for future studies to determine changes over time in the pattern of misperception of weight status amongst rural dwellers.
We found considerable gender differences in the body weight perception of Nigerian adults in the rural community. Our findings have important implication for future primary and secondary prevention efforts. The rural dwellers need to be better informed regarding the definition of healthy body weight, and frequent assessments and professional evaluation of their growth, and weight status are needed. The gender differences suggest the need for gender-tailored intervention programs.
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