Personal Fun Fact: My girl on the left was the very first,second hand doll I purchased at my regular flea market as an adult collector. To be honest, I don't remember if my dad took me to indoor flea markets during the winter that year, so I can't recall if I purchased other dolls before her. But, this Mulan was the first doll I purchased at my regular, seasonal flea market, when it first opened in I bought her at the same time I got my Tzipporah doll! My Mulan on the right came from a yard sale lot of dolls I got on Memorial Day weekend of
M Size Japan Limited. Your child will love putting Mulan's feet in the stirrups and moving Khan's tail to make rising riding movements and sounds. I always use actual photos so what you see is what you get. My Real riding khan on the right came from a yard sale lot of dolls I got on Memorial Day weekend of Personal Fun Fact: My girl on the left was Hot chicks riding dicks very Real riding khan ridng doll I purchased at my regular flea market as an adult collector. Listing Translator by. International Priority Shipping. I bought her at the same time I got my Tzipporah doll! Look at the photos.
Mistress tease edging. Покупки по категориям
Turkic and Para-Mongolic origin has been suggested Real riding khan a number of scholars including RamstedtShiratori, Sinor and Mhanand was reportedly first used by the Xianbei. He delegated authority based on merit and loyalty, rather than family ties. Boyle Like many titles, the meaning of the term has also extended southwards, such as in Afghanistan Pakistanand Central Asian nations, where it has become a common surname. Main article: Family tree of Genghis Khan. Negative views persist Tiding histories written by many cultures from different geographical regions. She gave birth to a ,han, Jochi —nine months later, clouding the issue of his parentage. Rashid al-Din reports that the great Ridkng sent for his sons in the spring ofand while his brothers heeded the order, Jochi remained in Khorasan. While not a ruler or nobleman, 'Khan' does have several followers who are, like himself, genetically engineered super soldiers. This allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East and Asia, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas.
Items are in hand and ship within 24 hours of payment from USA.
- In the Seljuk Empire it was the highest noble title, ranking above malik king and emir.
- He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia.
Personal Fun Fact: My girl on the left was the very first,second hand doll I purchased at my regular flea market as an adult collector. To be honest, I don't remember if my dad took me to indoor flea markets during the winter that year, so I can't recall if I purchased other dolls before her. But, this Mulan was the first doll I purchased at my regular, seasonal flea market, when it first opened in I bought her at the same time I got my Tzipporah doll!
My Mulan on the right came from a yard sale lot of dolls I got on Memorial Day weekend of The yard sale was for a charity. My sister and I passed the sale towards the end of the day, when everything was free.
We got two huge boxes of dolls that day! Of course, my sister donated money to the charity anyways I would have felt bad getting so many dolls for free when there was a great cause to donate to. Taken on July 13, All rights reserved.
Genghis Khan dedicated special attention to this in order to speed up the gathering of military intelligence and official communications. Campaigns Battles. On the title Khatun, see Boyle, 'Khatun', , according to whom it was of Soghdian origin and was borne by wives and female relations of various Turkish Rulers. The Galician—Volhynian Chronicle alleges he was killed by the Western Xia in battle, while Marco Polo wrote that he died after the infection of an arrow wound he received during his final campaign. Genghis Khan. Southern Siberia Qara Khitai —18 Khwarezmia —
Real riding khan. Покупки по категориям
In Safavid Persia it was the title of a provincial governor, and in Mughal India it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers. After the downfall of the Mughals it was used promiscuously and became a surname.
The origin of the term is disputed and unknown, possibly a loanword from the Ruanruan language. Turkic and Para-Mongolic origin has been suggested by a number of scholars including Ramstedt , Shiratori, Sinor and Doerfer , and was reportedly first used by the Xianbei.
The origin of qan itself is harder according to Vovin. He says that the origin for the word qan is not found in any reconstructed proto-language and was used widely by Turkic, Mongolic, Chinese and Korean people with variations from kan, qan, han and hwan. In the middle of the sixth century the Iranians knew of a "Kagan — King of the Turks".
Various Mongolic and Turkish peoples from Central Asia gave the title new prominence after period of the Mongol Empire — in the Old World and later brought the title "khan" into Northern Asia, where locals later adopted it. Khagan is rendered [ by whom? Genghis Khan himself was referred as qa'an khagan only posthumously.
Originally khans headed only relatively minor tribal entities, generally in or near the vast Mongolian and North Chinese steppe, the scene of an almost endless procession of nomadic people riding out into the history of the neighbouring sedentary regions. Some managed to establish principalities of some importance for a while, as their military might repeatedly proved a serious threat to such empires as China and kingdoms in Central Asia.
One of the earliest notable examples of such principalities in Europe was Danube Bulgaria presumably also Old Great Bulgaria , ruled by a khan or a kan at least from the 7th to the 9th century. The title "khan" is not attested directly in inscriptions and texts referring to Bulgar rulers — the only similar title found so far, Kanasubigi , has been found solely in the inscriptions of three consecutive Bulgarian rulers, namely Krum , Omurtag and Malamir a grandfather, son and grandson.
Starting from the compound, non-ruler titles that were attested among Bulgarian noble class such as kavkhan vicekhan , tarkhan , and boritarkhan , scholars derive the title khan or kan for the early Bulgarian leader — if there was a vicekhan kavkhan there was probably a "full" khan , too. Before the title was used to designate leaders of important tribes as well as tribal confederations the Mongol Empire considered the largest one , and rulers of non-Mongol countries.
Ming Dynasty Chinese Emperors also used the term Xan to denote brave warriors and rulers. The title Khan was used to designate the greatest rulers of the Jurchens , who, later when known as the Manchus , founded the Manchu Qing dynasty. Once more, there would be numerous khanates in the steppe in and around Central Asia, often more of a people than a territorial state, e. While most Afghan principalities were styled emirate, there was a khanate of ethnic Uzbeks in Badakhshan since Khan was also the title of the rulers of various break-away states and principalities later in Persia , e.
There were various small khanates in and near Transcaucasia and Ciscaucasia established by the Safavids , or their successive Afsharid and Qajar dynasties outside their territories of Persia proper. For example, in present Armenia and nearby territories to the left and right, there was the khanate of Erivan sole incumbent — Hosein Quli Khan Qajar.
As hinted above, the title Khan was also common in some of the polities of the various — generally Islamic — peoples in the territories of the Mongol Golden Horde and its successor states, which, like the Mongols in general, were commonly called Ta r tars [d] by Europeans and Russians, and were all eventually subdued by Muscovia which became the Russian Empire. The most important of these states were: [ citation needed ]. Further east, in Xinjiang East Turkestan flank: [ citation needed ].
The ruling descendants of the main branch of Genghis Khan's dynasty are referred to as the Great Khans. The title Khan of Khans was among numerous titles used by the Sultans of the Ottoman empire as well as the rulers of the Golden Horde and its descendant states.
The title Khan was also used in the Seljuk Turk dynasties of the near-east to designate a head of multiple tribes, clans or nations, who was below an Atabeg in rank. In imperial Persia , Khan female form Khanum in Persia was the title of a nobleman, higher than Beg or bey and usually used after the given name.
At the Qajar court , precedence for those not belonging to the dynasty was mainly structured in eight classes, each being granted an honorary rank title, the fourth of which was Khan, or in this context synonymously Amir, granted to commanders of armed forces, provincial tribal leaders; in descending order. The titles Khan and Khan Bahadur from the Altaic root baghatur , related to the Turkic batyr or batur and Mongolian baatar "brave, hero" ; were also bestowed in feudal India by the Mughals , who although Muslims were of Turkic origin upon Muslims and sometimes Hindus, and later by the British Raj , as an honor akin to the ranks of nobility, often for loyalty to the crown.
Khan Sahib was another title of honour. The equivalent for the courts Hindu retainers was Rai. In Swat , a Pakistani Frontier State, it was the title of the secular elite, who together with the Mullahs Muslim clerics , proceeded to elect a new Amir-i-Shariyat in It seems unclear whether the series of titles known from the Bengal sultanate are merely honorific or perhaps relate to a military hierarchy. Like many titles, the meaning of the term has also extended southwards, such as in Afghanistan ,  Pakistan , and Central Asian nations, where it has become a common surname.
This reply impressed Genghis Khan. Chu'Tsai administered parts of the Mongol Empire and became a confidant of the successive Mongol Khans. Genghis Khan put absolute trust in his generals, such as Muqali , Jebe and Subutai , and regarded them as close advisors, often extending them the same privileges and trust normally reserved for close family members.
He allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns far from the Mongol Empire capital Karakorum. Muqali, a trusted lieutenant, was given command of the Mongol forces against the Jin dynasty while Genghis Khan was fighting in Central Asia, and Subutai and Jebe were allowed to pursue the Great Raid into the Caucasus and Kievan Rus' , an idea they had presented to the Khagan on their own initiative.
While granting his generals a great deal of autonomy in making command decisions, Genghis Khan also expected unwavering loyalty from them. The Mongol military was also successful in siege warfare , cutting off resources for cities and towns by diverting certain rivers, taking enemy prisoners and driving them in front of the army, and adopting new ideas, techniques and tools from the people they conquered, particularly in employing Muslim and Chinese siege engines and engineers to aid the Mongol cavalry in capturing cities.
Another standard tactic of the Mongol military was the commonly practiced feigned retreat to break enemy formations and to lure small enemy groups away from the larger group and defended position for ambush and counterattack. Another important aspect of the military organization of Genghis Khan was the communications and supply route or Yam , adapted from previous Chinese models.
Genghis Khan dedicated special attention to this in order to speed up the gathering of military intelligence and official communications. To this end, Yam waystations were established all over the empire. Following are the Khanates as Genghis Khan assigned them:. Contrary to popular belief, Genghis Khan did not conquer the whole area of the eventual Mongol Empire.
At the time of his death in , the empire stretched from the Caspian Sea to the Sea of Japan. Its expansion continued for one or more generations.
Mongol armies pushed into Persia, finished off the Western Xia and the remnants of the Khwarezmids, clashed with the imperial Song dynasty of China, and eventually took control of all of China in They also pushed further into Russia and eastern Europe. Like other notable conquerors, Genghis Khan is portrayed differently by conquered peoples than those who conquered with him. Negative views persist in histories written by many cultures from different geographical regions.
They often cite the systematic slaughter of civilians in conquered regions, cruelties and destruction by Mongol armies. Other authors also cite positive aspects of Genghis Khan's conquests. Genghis Khan is credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment. This allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East and Asia, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas.
Some historians have noted that Genghis Khan instituted certain levels of meritocracy in his rule, was tolerant of religions and explained his policies clearly to all his soldiers. Genghis Khan had been revered for centuries by Mongols and certain other ethnic groups such as Turks , largely because of his association with Mongol statehood, political and military organization, and his victories in war. He eventually evolved into a larger-than-life figure chiefly among the Mongols and is still considered the symbol of Mongolian culture.
During the communist period in Mongolia, Genghis was often described as a reactionary, and positive statements about him were avoided. In the early s, the memory of Genghis Khan underwent a powerful revival, partly in reaction to its suppression during the Mongolian People's Republic period.
Genghis Khan became one of the central figures of the national identity. He is considered positively by Mongolians for his role in uniting warring tribes. For example, Mongolians often refer to their country as "Genghis Khan's Mongolia", to themselves as "Genghis Khan's children", and to Genghis Khan as the "father of the Mongols" especially among the younger generation.
However, there is a chasm in the perception of his brutality. Mongolians maintain that the historical records written by non-Mongolians are unfairly biased against Genghis Khan and that his butchery is exaggerated, while his positive role is underrated. In Mongolia today, Genghis Khan's name and likeness appear on products, streets, buildings, and other places. Major Genghis Khan statues stand before the parliament  and near Ulaanbaatar.
There have been repeated discussions about regulating the use of his name and image to avoid trivialization. Genghis Khan is regarded as one of the prominent leaders in Mongolia's history.
He reinforced many Mongol traditions and provided stability and unity during a time of almost endemic warfare between tribes. He is also credited for introducing the traditional Mongolian script and creating the first written Mongolian code of law, the Ikh Zasag "Great Administration".
On the th anniversary of Genghis's birth, the President stated "Chinggis He was a man who knew that the good laws and rules lived longer than fancy palaces. As of [update] , Elbegdorj issued a decree establishing Genghis Khan's birthday as a national holiday on the first day of winter according to the Mongolian lunar calendar.
The legacy of Genghis and his successors, who completed the conquest of China after 65 years of struggle, remains a mixed topic. An unknown number of people migrated to Southern China in this period. In Inner Mongolia there are a monument and buildings dedicated to him and considerable number of ethnic Mongols in the area with a population of around 5 million, almost twice the population of Mongolia. While Genghis never conquered all of China, his grandson Kublai Khan completed that conquest and established the Yuan dynasty that is often credited with re-uniting China.
There has been much artwork and literature praising Genghis as a military leader and political genius. The Mongol-established Yuan dynasty left an indelible imprint on Chinese political and social structures for subsequent generations with literature during the preceding Jin dynasty relatively fewer.
Genghis Khan supported the Chinese Daoist sect leader Qiu Chuji and after personally meeting him in what is now Afghanistan, gave him control of all religious affairs in northern China. In the Middle East, and particularly in Iran , Genghis Khan is almost universally condemned as a destructive and genocidal warlord who caused enormous destruction to the population of these areas. Ward wrote that "Overall, the Mongol violence and depredations killed up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, possibly 10 to 15 million people.
Some historians have estimated that Iran's population did not again reach its pre-Mongol levels until the midth century.
In Afghanistan along with other non-Turkic Muslim countries , he is generally viewed unfavorably, though some groups display ambivalence as it is believed that the Hazara of Afghanistan are descendants of a large Mongol garrison stationed there.
The invasions of Merv , Samarkand , Urgench , Nishapur , Bamyan , Balkh and Herat among others caused mass murders, such as when large portions of Khorasan Province were completely destroyed. His descendant Hulagu Khan destroyed much of Iran's north and sacked Baghdad, although his forces were halted by the Mamluks of Egypt.
Hulagu's descendant Ghazan Khan once returned to beat the Mamluks and briefly gain the control of Syria, but were eventually defeated. According to the works of the Persian historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani , the Mongols killed more than 70, people in Merv and more than , in Nishapur. Over the course of three years, the Mongols annihilated all of the major cities of Eastern Europe with the exception of Novgorod and Pskov. They [the Mongols] attacked Russia, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Russia; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death.
When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery.
Among the Iranian peoples , Genghis Khan, along with Hulagu and Timur are among the most despised conquerors in the region. Although the famous Mughal emperors were proud descendants of Genghis Khan and particularly Timur , they clearly distanced themselves from the Mongol atrocities committed against the Khwarizim Shahs, Turks , Persians , the citizens of Baghdad and Damascus , Nishapur , Bukhara and historical figures such as Attar of Nishapur and many other notable Muslims.
However, Mughal Emperors directly patronized the legacies of Genghis Khan and Timur; together their names were synonymous with the names of other distinguished personalities particularly among the Muslim populations of South Asia. In addition to most of the Mongol nobility up to the 20th century, the Mughal emperor Babur 's mother was a descendant.
Timur also known as Tamerlane , the 14th-century military leader, and many other nobilities of central Asian countries claimed descent from Genghis Khan. During the Soviet purge most of the Mongol nobility in Mongolia were purged. The closest depiction generally accepted by most historians is the portrait currently in the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan, which was drawn under the supervision of his grandson Khubilai during the Mongol Yuan dynasty and depicts Genghis Khan with typical Mongol features.
Since people of the Mongol nation later associated the name with ching Mongolian for strength , such confusion is obvious, though it does not follow etymology. One theory suggests the name stems from a palatalised version of the Mongolian and Turkic word tenggis , meaning "ocean", "oceanic" or "wide-spreading".
Lake Baikal and ocean were called tenggis by the Mongols. However, it seems that if they had meant to call Genghis tenggis they could have said, and written, "Tenggis Khan", which they did not. It is likely that the 13th-century Mongolian pronunciation would have closely matched "Chinggis". The English spelling "Genghis" is of unclear origin.
Weatherford claims it derives from a spelling used in original Persian reports. Even at this time some Iranians pronounce his name as "Ghengiss". However, review of historical Persian sources does not confirm this. The name would imply a blacksmith or a man strong like iron. No evidence has survived to indicate that Genghis Khan had any exceptional training or reputation as a blacksmith. Following conquest of Southern Song in , Yuan ruled all of China. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the Mongolian emperor. For other uses, see Genghis Khan disambiguation. Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th-century Yuan era album; the original version was in black and white. Paint and ink on silk. Main article: Family tree of Genghis Khan. See also: Proto-Mongols and List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. See also: Mongol invasions and conquests. Main article: Mongol conquest of Western Xia. Main article: Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty.
Main article: Qara Khitai. Main article: Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia. Main article: Mongol invasion of China. Main article: Jochi. Main article: Tomb of Genghis Khan. Main article: Mongol Empire. Main article: Mongol military tactics and organization.
See also: List of Mongol rulers. Main article: Destruction under the Mongol Empire. Main article: Descent from Genghis Khan. But because G before E in English is ambiguous cf.
Central Asiatic Journal. Retrieved July 29, According to Ratchnevsky, accepting a birth in would render Genghis Khan a father at the age of 30 and would imply that he personally commanded the expedition against the Tanguts at the age of Zhao Hong reports in his travelogue that the Mongols he questioned did not know and had never known their ages.
Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Blackwell Publishing. It is possible, however, to say with certainty that Genghis Khan died in August ; only in specifying the actual day of his death do our sources disagree. The Mongols 2 ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Webster's New World College Dictionary. Wiley Publishing. Oxford University Press. History of the Mongol Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection reprint, illustrated ed.
Retrieved May 17, Mongolia: a guide to economic and political developments. North Georgia College and State University. Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved January 26, Beheadings and mass slaughter are the hallmark of IS —whole villages massacred, women cast into slavery. But this butchery is not random. It is callous and calculated, as former British intelligence officer Alastair Crooke points out: 'They in fact in some ways copy Genghis Khan and the Mongol approach to military conquest.
You create an absolute fear deliberately in your enemies, and the first time you come to a village you kill everyone, the dogs, the cats, everything. Destroy it down to the ground. Behind the Name. Retrieved March 29, The New Encyclopedia of Islam. The Mongols Peoples of Europe. Jackson, Encyclopedia of traditional epics, p. Asian Culture Series. Man of March 17, Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World.
Retrieved December 16, The Biography Channel. Archived from the original on July 16, Retrieved May 20, New York: Crown Publishing Group. Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire illustrated ed. Cambridge University Press.
Conqueror of the World: The Life of Chingis-khagan. New York: Viking Press. Genghis Khan. London: Oneworld Publications. Three Rivers Press.
Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection. London; New York: Bantam Press. SUNY Press. The Mongols. The Peoples of Europe. Li, Xiaobing ed.
China at War: An Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 21, London: Dorling Kindersley. Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection. New York City: St. Martin's Press. New York City: Infobase Publishing.
Die Mongolen. Ein Volk sucht seine Geschichte. October 7, May 10, International Herald Tribune. BBC News. Retrieved August 3, Archived from the original on November 3, Retrieved July 24, October 6, May 3, Retrieved February 16, Office of the President of Mongolia. March 3, Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved August 1, November 14, Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved October 12, John Wiley and Sons.
Academic Press. Ward, Steven Immortal: a military history of Iran and its armed forces. Georgetown University Press. The American Journal of Human Genetics. Hartl, Elizabeth W. Jones, p. Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original on May 30, December 14, Archived from the original on December 14, Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved August 24, Lanham, Maryland: Cooper Square Press.
Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved February 20, Genghis Khan at Wikipedia's sister projects. Khagans of the Mongol Empire. Mongol Empire — Politics Organization Life. Campaigns Battles. Southern Siberia Qara Khitai —18 Khwarezmia — India — Timeline of the Mongol Empire.
Spring in a Kurultai at the Onon River , Mongolia. Library resources about Genghis Khan. Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries.
M Size Japan Limited. Your child will love putting Mulan's feet in the stirrups and moving Khan's tail to make real riding movements and sounds. Take Mushu along for a ride by clipping him onto Mulan's shoulder or Khan's saddle. Groom Khan's beautiful long mane with the included comb and tail sash. Check out my other items! Be sure to add me to your favorites list! To view the showcase you need Flash 6 or higher.
Click here to Install it now. Froo www. Press to translate. Listing Translator by. SE Check out my other items! International Priority Shipping.