About 3. The LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community belongs to almost every race, ethnicity, religion, age, and socioeconomic group. The LGBT youth are at a higher risk for substance use, sexually transmitted diseases STDs , cancers, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, bullying, isolation, rejection, anxiety, depression, and suicide as compared to the general population. The main objective of this literature review is to highlight the challenges faced by the LGBT youth and to enhance the awareness among physicians about the existing disparities in order to provide a more comprehensive, evidence-based, and humane medical care to this community. It is noteworthy to mention that the lack of appropriate questions pertaining to gender and sexual identity in most national or state surveys makes it difficult to estimate the number of LGBT individuals and their health care needs.
CRC Press. Trans people who have not transitioned and remain in their birth gender are very prone to depression and anxiety. The Advocate. Learn More. Nintendo pussy are the techniques of vaginoplasty for gender confirmation surgery? The Atlantic. Childbirth educators should avoid assuming that parents are heterosexual or straight couples. Resentment revolves around the subject of homophobia and heterosexism and it is not limited to their homes. Journal List Cureus v.
Free tattoo dating sites. Bisexual people face the most health issues
Like x 5. Homosexuality is not an illness or disease, but I guess if anything, it's a difference in preference, like left-handedness. It is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Laughing to see how things have changed after 20 years since this book first released. Persecution that is directed toward people because of their sexual orientation is called homophobia. Get A Copy. Mental health of the non-heterosexual population of England. Rates Heal issues for homosexuals depressionanxietyobsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and alcohol and drug dependence were significantly higher in homosexual respondents. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. British Journal of PsychiatryVol. She died at 84, proving that the good die young. Open Preview See a Problem?
Experts say stress and lack of healthcare causes more heart disease, high blood pressure, and other ailments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.
- Homosexual people tend to experience more mental health problems than heterosexual people, research indicates.
- Although most medical professionals recognize homosexuality as a normal variant in human sexuality and agree that it is not a physical or mental disorder, homosexuals are at increased risk for several medical conditions, including sexually transmitted diseases STDs and sexually transmitted infections STIs.
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It is often pointed out that the reason of this is heterosexism in medical care and research:  . These forms of discrimination limit medical research and negatively impact the health care of LGB individuals. This disparity is particularly extreme for lesbians compared to homosexual men because they have a double minority status, and experience oppression for being both female and homosexual. Research from the United Kingdom indicates that there appears to be limited evidence available from which to draw general conclusions about lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health because epidemiological studies have not incorporated sexuality as a factor in data collection.
Students who also fall into the gay, bisexual, lesbian or trans gendered identity groups report being five times as more likely to miss school because they feel unsafe after being bullied due to their sexual orientation. This citation is from the article Marginalised mothers: Lesbian women negotiating heteronormative healthcare services, which talks about how heteronormative rhetorics affect the way lesbian couples are viewed.
One longitudinal study of youth across 5. Nonetheless, the decrease in distress was greater for youth with low peer and family support than for those participants with high support. At age 17, those who lacked family support but had high peer support exhibited the highest levels of distress, but this distress level lowered to nearly the same level as those reporting high levels of support within a few years. In contrast, those who solely received non-family support reported worse outcomes for all measured health outcomes except for anxiety and hopelessness, for which there was no difference.
One qualitative study interviewed 55 bisexual people in order to identify common reasons for higher rates of mental health problems. The testimonials that were collected and organized into macro level social structure , meso level interpersonal , and micro level individual factors. Many also stated that their identify was repetitively degraded by others, and that they are assumed to be promiscuous and hypersexual.
During dates with others that did not identify as bisexual, some sighted being attacked and rejected solely based their sexual orientation. Family members similarly questioned and criticized their identity. In order to address issues of self acceptance, participants recommended embracing spirituality, exercise, the arts, and other activities that promote emotional health. According to Katherine A. There are also policy documents from both the UK and US Government that stated there could be higher rates of breast cancer among lesbian and bisexual women despite insufficient evidence.
Depression and anxiety are thought to affect lesbians at a higher rate than in the general population, for similar reasons. Domestic violence is reported to occur in about 11 percent of lesbian homes. While this rate is about half the rate of 20 percent reported by heterosexual women, lesbians often have fewer resources available for shelter and counselling. Research shows that on average lesbians have a higher body mass index than heterosexual women.
Lesbian and bisexual women are more likely to be overweight or obese. Lesbians often have high rates of substance use, including recreational drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Lesbians who tell their health care providers they are sexually active report being pressured to obtain birth control , since the provider often equates female sexual activity with the possibility of pregnancy.
Human papilloma virus , which causes anal and genital warts, plays a role in the increased rates of anal cancers in gay men, and some health professionals now recommend routine screening with anal pap smears to detect early cancers. Studies by Cochran et al.
According to GLMA, "the problem may be more severe for those men who remain in the closet or who do not have adequate social supports. Adolescents and young adults may be at particularly high risk of suicide because of these concerns. Culturally sensitive mental health services targeted specifically at gay men may be more effective in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of these conditions. Gay men are more likely than straight men to suffer from eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia nervosa.
Men who have sex with men are at an increased risk of sexually transmitted infection with hepatitis, and immunization for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B is recommended for all men who have sex with men. Safer sex is currently the only means of prevention for the Hepatitis C. Men who have sex with men are more likely to acquire HIV in the modern West, Japan,  India,  and Taiwan,  as well as other developed countries than among the general population,  in the United States, 60 times more likely than the general population.
David McDowell of Columbia University , who has studied substance abuse in gay men, wrote that club drugs are particularly popular at gay bars and circuit parties.
Typically, bisexual individuals and their health and well-being are not studied independently of lesbian and gay individuals. Thus, there is limited research on the health issues that affect bisexual individuals. However, the research that has been done has found striking disparities between bisexuals and heterosexuals, and even between bisexuals and homosexuals.
It is important to consider that the majority of bisexual individuals are well-adjusted and healthy, despite having higher instances of health issues than the heterosexual population. Youth who reported having sex with both males and females are at the greatest risk for disordered eating, unhealthy weight control practices compared to youth who only have same- or other-gender sex. Bisexual females are higher on suicidal intent, mental health difficulties and mental health treatment than bisexual males.
Female adolescents who report relationships with same- and other-sex partners have higher rates of alcohol abuse and substance abuse. Bisexual women are more likely to be nulliparous , overweight and obese, have higher smoking rates and alcohol drinking than heterosexual women, all risk factors for breast cancer.
Evidence for risky sexual behavior in bisexually behaving men has been conflicted. Bisexually active men have been shown to be just as likely as gay or heterosexual men to use condoms.
In a nationwide study in the United States, There have been several studies that discuss healthcare experiences of pregnant lesbian women. Larsson and Dykes conducted a study in about lesbian mothers in Sweden. The participants wanted their healthcare providers to confirm and recognize both parents, not just the biological mother.
They also wanted their healthcare providers to ask questions about their "life styles" to demonstrate their openness about sexuality. Most of the women in the study commented that they had good experiences with healthcare. However, birth education tended to focus on mother and father dynamics. The forms that were also used tended to be heterosexist see Heterosexism , only allowing for mother and father identities.
She found that curiosity about a patient's sexuality can take over an appointment, sometimes placing the patient into a situation where they end up educating the provider. To be inclusive, Singer recommended that healthcare providers should be more inclusive in their opening discussions by saying "So tell me the story of how you became pregnant". Healthcare providers should, according to Singer, use inclusive language that can be used for all types of patients.
Healthcare providers were also not aware of how much reproductive health care cost for lesbian couples and they should openly recognize this issue with their lesbian patients. Childbirth educators should avoid assuming that parents are heterosexual or straight couples. They recommend using neutral language when discussing parent preferences.
Forms, applications, and other distributed information should be inclusive of lesbian parents. They suggest using terms such as "non-biological mother, co-parent, social mother, other mother and second female parent" are good examples.
Asking parents was also a suggested way to figure out what term should be used. Parents may also need help navigating legal systems in the area. Midwife wives and Doula s have provided care for lesbian women and couples who are pregnant.
In an article in Rewire News, there was a discussion of how midwives and doulas are attempting to improve the overall care of lesbian couples by having specific training based on providing care to these couples as well as having inclusive processes. Midwives were considered helpful advocates with other healthcare providers that they encountered. They found that midwives were the ones who were responsible for creating a space to discuss sexuality. However, midwives in the study felt that they were inadequate about having the communication tools to create this space.
Additionally, the researchers found that lesbian couples were seen as different compared to straight couples. The partners have a sense of both love and friendship. Their differences were also seen when trying to find the roles for the lesbian co-mothers non-biological mothers , as the language and questions asked did not fit their roles.
Finally, the researchers found that there needed to be a balance of asking questions and being overly assertive. Midwives could ask questions about the patients' sexuality, but asking too many questions caused discomfort in the patients. Additionally, in some jurisdictions, health care related to transgender issues, especially sex reassignment therapy , is not covered by medical insurance.
In India, a report claimed that hijras 'face discrimination in various ways' in the Indian health-care system, and sexual reassignment surgery is unavailable in government hospitals in India. In Bangladesh, health facilities sensitive to hijra culture are virtually non-existent, according to a report on hijra social exclusion.
The National Transgender Discrimination Survey, published by National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and the National Center for Transgender Equality in partnership with the National Black Justice Coalition,  shed light on the discrimination transgender and gender non-conforming people face in many aspects of daily life, including in medical and health care settings.
Transgender Survey, was published in December Section of the Affordable Care Act contains nondiscrimination provisions to protect transgender people. In December , however, a federal judge issued an injunction to block the enforcement of "the portion of the Final Rule that interprets discrimination on the basis of 'gender identity' and 'termination of pregnancy'".
Severino opposes Section  and HHS has said it "will not investigate complaints about anti-transgender discrimination," as explained by the National Center for Transgender Equality. On April 2, , Texas Senate Bill 17 passed by a vote of It would allow state-licensed professionals such as doctors, pharmacists, lawyers, and plumbers to deny services to anyone if the professional cites a religious objection. To reveal the motivations behind the bill, opponents proposed an amendment to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity; the amendment failed The ruling means that federally-funded healthcare insurers and providers may deny treatment or coverage based on sex, gender identity or termination of pregnancy, and that doctors aren't required to provide any services whatsoever to transgender people—even if they're the same services provided to non-transgender people, and even if they're medically necessary.
Although they are not the only uninsured population in the United States, transgender people are less likely than cisgender people to have access to health insurance and if they do, their insurance plan may not cover medically necessary services. They were also less likely to be insured by an employer. While a majority of U. Depending on where they live, some transgender people are able to access gender-specific health care through public health insurance programs.
Medicaid does not have a federal policy on transgender health care and leaves the regulation of the coverage of gender-confirming health care up to each state.
Cancers related to hormone use include breast cancer and liver cancer. In addition, trans men who have not had removal of the uterus, ovaries, or breasts remain at risk to develop cancer of these organs, but trans women remain at risk for prostate cancer. According to transgender advocate Rebecca A.
Allison , trans people are "particularly prone" to depression and anxiety: "In addition to loss of family and friends, they face job stress and the risk of unemployment. Trans people who have not transitioned and remain in their birth gender are very prone to depression and anxiety. Suicide is a risk, both prior to transition and afterward.
Suicide attempts are common in transgender people. In some transgender populations the majority have attempted suicide at least once. In contrast, 1.
Jun 24, Moataz added it. Open minds and hearts will only gain by reading this book and the others by Leanne. In the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, participants chosen to be representative of the UK population gave information on neurotic symptoms, common mental disorders, probable psychosis , suicidal thoughts, and alcohol and drug use, as well as aspects of sexual identity and perceived discrimination. The content on this website is provided for educational purposes only. I heard somewhere that Islam could be treated with penicillin.
Heal issues for homosexuals. Concerns and Issues for Homosexuals
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health | Healthy People
All people who need medical care should be able to see their doctor without worrying about being mistreated, harassed, or denied service outright. The Affordable Care Act ACA helped address this issue by prohibiting health care providers and insurance companies from engaging in discrimination.
As a result of several court rulings and an Obama administration rule, LGBTQ people are explicitly protected against discrimination in health care on the basis of gender identity and sex stereotypes. However, conservative forces and the Trump-Pence administration are seeking to make it easier for health care providers to discriminate against LGBTQ people and women.
For example, after one patient with HIV disclosed to a hospital that he had sex with other men, the hospital staff refused to provide his HIV medication.
In another case, a transgender teenager who was admitted to a hospital for suicidal ideation and self-inflicted injuries was repeatedly misgendered and then discharged early by hospital staff. He later committed suicide. New data from a nationally representative CAP survey conducted in show that LGBTQ people experience discrimination in health care settings; that discrimination discourages them from seeking care; and that LGBTQ people may have trouble finding alternative services if they are turned away.
Despite existing protections, LGBTQ people face disturbing rates of health care discrimination—from harassment and humiliation by providers to being turned away by hospitals, pharmacists, and doctors. Among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer LGBQ respondents who had visited a doctor or health care provider in the year before the survey:.
Discrimination—and even the potential for discrimination—can deter LGBTQ people from seeking care in the first place. In the year prior to the survey, 8 percent of all LGBTQ people—and 14 percent of those who had experienced discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity in the past year—avoided or postponed needed medical care because of disrespect or discrimination from health care staff.
Among transgender people, 22 percent reported such avoidance. With regard to preventative screenings, 7 percent of LGBTQ respondents reported avoiding or postponing care in the year prior to the survey, while 17 percent of LGBTQ respondents who had experienced discrimination that year and 19 percent of transgender people reporting avoidance during that period. In that analysis, 6. This avoidance behavior is even more common among LGBTQ people who reported having experienced discrimination in the past year: These CAP data are consistent with other research.
The U. Transgender Survey found that nearly 1 in 4 transgender people 23 percent had avoided seeking needed health care in the past year due to fear of discrimination or mistreatment due to their gender identity. The expansion of legislation, lawsuits, and administrative rule-making allowing for broad religious exemptions from providing services puts another impediment in the way of LGBTQ people receiving medical care. For those patients that do seek medical care and are turned away by providers, alternatives may not be easily accessible.
This concern is exacerbated by a shortage of medical providers in key areas of treatment such as mental health care and geographic areas such as rural communities.
CAP survey data show that many LGBTQ people would face significant difficulty finding an alternative provider if they were turned away by a health care provider, such as a hospital, clinic, or pharmacy. LGBTQ people living outside of a metropolitan area report a high rate of difficulty accessing alternative services, which may be because such services could be further away and transportation costs have the potential to be higher.
Some people may go to LGBTQ community health centers to avoid such discrimination, but they are not widely available across the United States, and many do not provide comprehensive services. On the U. Transgender Survey, 29 percent of respondents seeking transition-related care reported having to travel 25 miles or more to access such care.
Despite the importance of protecting people from discrimination in health care settings, current regulations are under attack. On August 23, , a group of conservative religious organizations and eight states filed a lawsuit against the U. They made dubious claims that the nondiscrimination protections would require doctors to provide treatment that violated their religious beliefs, such as transition-related surgeries for transgender patients.
On May 2, , the Trump-Pence administration filed a motion indicating that the rule was under review, and in August, it announced that HHS had already written a draft proposal to roll back the rule.
While the administration cannot change the protections for LGBTQ people that exist under the law, a regulatory rollback would cause fear and confusion for patients and promote discrimination by providers and insurers. To conduct this study, CAP commissioned and designed a survey, fielded by GfK SE, which surveyed 1, individuals about their experiences with health insurance and health care.
Respondents came from all income ranges and are diverse across factors such as race, ethnicity, education, geography, disability status, and age. The survey was fielded online in English in January to coincide with the fourth open enrollment period through the health insurance marketplaces and the beginning of the first full year of federal rules that specifically protect LGBTQ people from discrimination in health insurance coverage and health care. The data are nationally representative and weighted according to U.
Metro is defined as a metropolitan core-based statistical area and nonmetro is defined as anything else, including micropolitan core-based statistical areas and locations outside of a core-based statistical area. Additional information about study methods and materials are available in prior analyses and from the authors.
Among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer LGBQ respondents who had visited a doctor or health care provider in the year before the survey: 8 percent said that a doctor or other health care provider refused to see them because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation. Finding another doctor is not an answer for all LGBTQ patients The expansion of legislation, lawsuits, and administrative rule-making allowing for broad religious exemptions from providing services puts another impediment in the way of LGBTQ people receiving medical care.
Conclusion Despite the importance of protecting people from discrimination in health care settings, current regulations are under attack. Methodology To conduct this study, CAP commissioned and designed a survey, fielded by GfK SE, which surveyed 1, individuals about their experiences with health insurance and health care. All States.