Drugs to change sexual preference-Turning Homosexuality On and Off - The New York Times

Cribb, Larry A. Kroutil, and Gretchen McHenry. Research suggests that sexual minorities e. Although sexual orientation is not a new construct, many federally funded surveys have only recently begun to identify sexual minorities in their data collections. In , the National Survey on Drug Use and Health NSDUH added two questions on sexual orientation, one for sexual identity and one for sexual attraction, making it the first nationally representative, comprehensive source of federally collected information on substance use and mental health issues among sexual minority adults.

Drugs to change sexual preference

Drugs to change sexual preference

Drugs to change sexual preference

Drugs to change sexual preference

Drugs to change sexual preference

At that time, the Sexaul viewed homosexuality as a Drugs to change sexual preference disorder, and that became the prevailing view in China as well. Human Rights Campaign. All estimates presented in this report are derived from NSDUH survey data that are subject to sampling errors. Not necessarily. See also: Relationship counseling. An estimated 3. Shidlo and Schroeder also reported that many respondents were harmed by the attempt to change.

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Drugs to change sexual preference second APA paper, presented by Dr. Dean; Potts, Richard W. Archived from the original on September 26, Indeed, even if conversion therapies could be shown to change sexual orientation in a small number of cases, there are strong arguments that doing so is unethical. It may be harmful if the client is egosyntonic and does not wish to change their sexual orientation. Archived Drugs to change sexual preference the original on August 25, People with a sexual relationship disorder have difficulty forming or maintaining a relationship because of their sexual orientation. At that time, the West viewed homosexuality as a mental disorder, and that became the prevailing view in China as well. July 12, In response to the Task Force report, the APA passed a resolution that stated, in part, "the American Psychological Association concludes that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation" and "the American Psychological Association concludes that the benefits reported by participants in sexual orientation change efforts can be gained through approaches that do not attempt to change sexual orientation. In response to recent public debates about interventions intended to change individuals' sexual orientation, the American Psychological Association created a Task Force on Teen babynet Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation which reviewed the relevant research literature. Many people may seek to change their sexual orientation as a way to avoid behaviors which they perceive as being associated with homosexuality, [47] such as non-monogamy. The American Psychiatric Association recognizes that in the course of ongoing psychiatric treatment, there may be appropriate clinical indications for attempting to change sexual behaviors. Spitzer's study, consider an analogous situation. Retrieved 26 May

According to a story in the May 19th New York Times , Robert Spitzer has written a letter to Kenneth Zucker, editor of the Archives of Sexual Behavior , in which he expresses his regrets for publishing his study of highly religious individuals who said their sexual orientation was changed by reparative therapy.

  • According to a story in the May 19th New York Times , Robert Spitzer has written a letter to Kenneth Zucker, editor of the Archives of Sexual Behavior , in which he expresses his regrets for publishing his study of highly religious individuals who said their sexual orientation was changed by reparative therapy.
  • Researchers have long been of the opinion that people who identify as other than heterosexual are at a higher risk for double health and substance abuse issues, compared with the sexual majority.
  • Sexual orientation change efforts SOCE are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality.
  • .

Sexual orientation change efforts SOCE are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality. According to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, "there are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether or not such methods work to change sexual orientation.

The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences, and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality and bisexuality are per se normal and positive variations of human sexual orientation.

There is a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment. Indeed, such interventions are ethically suspect because they can be harmful to the psychological well-being of those who attempt them; clinical observations and self-reports indicate that many individuals who unsuccessfully attempt to change their sexual orientation experience considerable psychological distress.

For these reasons, no major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation. SOCE have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some right-wing faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations, human rights and civil rights organizations, and other faith-based organizations, as well as professional and scientific organizations, on the other.

Some individuals and groups have, contrary to global scientific research and consensus, promoted the idea of homosexuality as symptomatic of developmental defects or spiritual and moral failings and have argued that SOCE, including psychotherapy and religious efforts, could alter homosexual feelings and behaviors. Medical attempts to change homosexuality included surgical treatments such as hysterectomy , [11] ovariectomy , [12] clitoridectomy , [11] castration , [13] [14] vasectomy , [15] pudic nerve surgery, [16] and lobotomy.

Richard von Krafft-Ebing was a German-Austrian psychiatrist and one of the founders of scientific sexology. His first systematic work on sexual pathology was published in in a German psychiatric journal. His influential work, Psychopathia Sexualis was published in Numerous expanded German editions followed, and it was widely translated.

Krafft-Ebing became a proponent of the sickness model of homosexuality. Krafft-Ebing believed that hypnosis was therefore the "only means of salvation" [37] in most cases. He stated that he knew of only a single case in which self-hypnosis had proven successful, and that hypnotic suggestion by another person was usually necessary to change homosexuality.

Krafft-Ebing wrote about this method that " He rejected castration as a cure for homosexuality, and the internment of gay people in asylums, except in cases involving sex crimes.

Krafft-Ebing cautioned that the success or failure of treatments for homosexuality proved nothing about its causes. He defended the right of patients to receive such treatment. Krafft-Ebing criticised several objections to medical treatment of homosexuality, including the charges that it was ineffective and that it gave an opportunity "to tainted individuals to propagate their perversions".

In the last two decades of the 19th century, a different view began to predominate in medical and psychiatric circles, judging such behavior as indicative of a type of person with a defined and relatively stable sexual orientation. In the late 19th and 20th centuries, pathological models of homosexuality were standard.

In , the World Health Organization replaced its categorization of homosexuality as a mental illness with the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality. At that time APA stressed that removing homosexuality from the list of psychiatric disorders does not mean it is "normal" or as valuable as heterosexuality.

They also stated that modern methods of treatment allow interested homosexuals to change their sexual orientation with a significant degree of success. No major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation.

Christian right political groups have marketed sexual orientation change directly to consumers. A majority of people who attempt to change their sexual orientation come from conservative religious backgrounds.

Many people may seek to change their sexual orientation as a way to avoid behaviors which they perceive as being associated with homosexuality, [47] such as non-monogamy. An article in the American Medical Association 's Journal of Ethics argues that clinicians who care for adolescents face a "common challenge" of parents seeking interventions to change the sexual orientation of their teenage children. The article states that adolescents are increasingly comfortable in revealing their same-sex attraction to their parents because of the "generational shift in views of sexual orientation" due in part to increasing acceptance of LGBT rights and same-sex marriage.

An APA task force found that people often sought out SOCE due to a a lack of other sources of social support; b a desire for active coping and c access to methods of sexual orientation identity exploration and reconstruction. These pressures may lead people to feel forced into attempting to change their sexual orientation.

Types of behavior therapy used to change sexual orientation include aversion therapy , covert sensitization and systematic desensitization. A series of experiments appeared promising, and the practice became popular, but when reports were shown to be flawed, it fell out of favour. Bioenergetics is a therapeutic technique developed by Alexander Lowen and John Pierrakos , who were students of Wilhelm Reich.

It has been used to attempt to convert gay people to heterosexuality by Richard Cohen , who has been called one of America's leading practitioners of conversion therapy.

The American Psychological Association defines conversion therapy or reparative therapy as therapy aimed at changing sexual orientation. Aversive conditioning involving electric shock or nausea-inducing drugs was practiced before , as was sex therapy , [60] [61] though there are some reports of aversive treatments through unlicensed practice as late as the s.

The ethics guidelines of major U. It may be harmful if the client is egosyntonic and does not wish to change their sexual orientation.

A task force commissioned by the APA found that ex-gay groups act like support groups, in that they help counteract and buffer Minority Stress , marginalization, and isolation. Most ex-gay groups focus on abstaining from homosexual relationships rather than a complete sexual orientation change from homosexual to heterosexual.

People with a sexual relationship disorder have difficulty forming or maintaining a relationship because of their sexual orientation. A significant number of men and women experience conflict surrounding homosexual expression within a mixed-orientation marriage. Some people with unwanted homosexual attractions turn to their faith for help. Some conservative Christians believe that homosexuality is a result of a broken world and that faith can change sexual orientation.

Syntonic therapy, a method developed by Robert Kronemeyer, was based partly on the work of Wilhelm Reich. Kronemeyer rejected some earlier methods that were used in attempts to change homosexuality, including lobotomy , electroshock treatment, and Aesthetic Realism. During the Holocaust , an estimated 5, to 15, gay men were imprisoned in concentration camps on the grounds that male homosexuality was deemed incompatible with Nazism.

Some imprisoned homosexuals faced human experimentation by Nazi doctors who sought to find a "medical cure" for homosexuality.

No scientific knowledge has been yielded from these experiments. He made incisions in their groin and implanted a metal tube that released testosterone over a prolonged period, as he believed that a lack of testosterone was the cause of homosexuality. Although some of the men claimed to have become heterosexual, the results are largely unreliable as many are assumed to have stated they were "cured" in order to be released from the camp.

Those who did not show improvement were determined to be "chronic" or "incurable" homosexuals. Ex-gay organizations expressed concerns about the lack of representation of pro-reparative-therapy perspectives on the task force, while alleging that anti-reparative-therapy perspectives were amply represented. The task force reached the following findings: [1].

Recent studies of participants in Sexual Orientation Change Efforts SOCE identify a population of individuals who experience serious distress related to same sex sexual attractions.

These individuals report having pursued a variety of religious and secular efforts intended to help them to change their sexual orientation. To date, the research has not fully addressed age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, disability, language, and socioeconomic status in the population of distressed individuals.

Scientifically rigorous older work in this area e. Some individuals appeared to learn how to ignore or limit their attractions. However, this was much less likely to be true for people whose sexual attractions were initially limited to people of the same sex. Distress and depression were exacerbated. Although there is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation, some individuals modified their sexual orientation identity i.

Based on the available data, additional claims about the meaning of those outcomes are scientifically unsupported. In , the Pan American Health Organization the North and South American branch of the World Health Organization released a statement cautioning against "services that purport to 'cure' people with non-heterosexual sexual orientations" as they "lack medical justification and represent a serious threat to the health and well-being of affected people", and noted that "there is a professional consensus that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexuality and cannot be regarded as a pathological condition".

The organization further called "on governments, academic institutions, professional associations and the media to expose these practices and to promote respect for diversity. Additionally, the organization recommended that such malpractices be denounced and subject to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements.

The American Psychiatric Association also states: "It is possible to evaluate the theories which rationalize the conduct of "reparative" and conversion therapies.

Firstly, they are at odds with the scientific position of the American Psychiatric Association which has maintained, since , that homosexuality per se, is not a mental disorder.

The theories of "reparative" therapists define homosexuality as either a developmental arrest, a severe form of psychopathology, or some combination of both. In recent years, noted practitioners of "reparative" therapy have openly integrated older psychoanalytic theories that pathologize homosexuality with traditional religious beliefs condemning homosexuality.

The earliest scientific criticisms of the early theories and religious beliefs informing "reparative" or conversion therapies came primarily from sexology researchers. Later, criticisms emerged from psychoanalytic sources as well. There has also been an increasing body of religious thought arguing against traditional, biblical interpretations that condemn homosexuality and which underlie religious types of "reparative" therapy.

There is no sound scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed. Furthermore so-called treatments of homosexuality as recommended by NARTH create a setting in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish. The Royal College of Psychiatrists holds the view that lesbian, gay and bisexual people should be regarded as valued members of society who have exactly similar rights and responsibilities as all other citizens.

In Australia , the Australian Psychological Society states: "Even though homosexual orientation is not a mental illness and there is no scientific reason to attempt conversion of lesbians or gays to heterosexual orientation, some individuals may want to change their own sexual orientation or that of another individual for example, parents seeking therapy for their child.

Some therapists who undertake this kind of therapy report that they have changed their client's sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual in treatment. Close scrutiny of these reports shows that many of the claims come from organisations with an ideological perspective on sexual orientation rather than from mental health researchers. Also, the treatments and their outcomes are poorly documented and the length of time that clients are followed up after the treatment is sometimes too short to be a true reflection of the outcome.

In other cases it has been shown that individuals can be assisted to live a heterosexual lifestyle, but that their sexual orientation remains unchanged. In other words, their pattern of arousal to members of the same sex does not alter. The Australian Psychological Society acknowledges the lack of scientific evidence for the usefulness of conversion therapy, and notes that it can in fact be harmful for the individual.

In China , Western psychiatry and psychology were imported during a "Westernization Movement" in the late 19th century. At that time, the West viewed homosexuality as a mental disorder, and that became the prevailing view in China as well. During this period, homosexual sexual behavior was grounds for persecution, a marked change from the attitude of general but not total acceptance found in preth-century China. These views lasted throughout the s, despite changed theoretical models of sexuality orientation in the West, during a period when the Chinese government held a "closed-door" policy on information about human sexuality.

After , information became more available, and views began to change. In India , psychiatry and psychology scholars have "preserved an almost complete silence on the subject of homosexuality".

In Italy , little research has been conducted in the mental health community on homosexuality. Early work tended to describe homosexuality as a pathology or a developmental arrest. More recently, attitudes have begun to change: "with a lag of about ten years, Italy has followed In Germany , the psychiatry, psychology, and sexology establishment from the early 20th century viewed homosexuality as pathological.

However, following the increased visibility of the homosexual community during the AIDS epidemic of the late s and the declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder in the ICD, non-pathological, rather than pathological, models of homosexuality became mainstream. Japan 's psychiatric body removed homosexuality from its list of psychiatric disorders in

The Mainstream Position. Spitzer's study also appears to suffer from some of the same methodological flaws as the published studies discussed above. The participants in this body of research continued to experience same-sex attractions following SOCE [sexual orientation change efforts] and did not report significant change to other-sex attractions that could be empirically validated, though some showed lessened physiological arousal to all sexual stimuli. In , the World Health Organization replaced its categorization of homosexuality as a mental illness with the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality. Virtual Mentor. What about the many people who were harmed by the vitamin?

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Cribb, Larry A. Kroutil, and Gretchen McHenry. Research suggests that sexual minorities e. Although sexual orientation is not a new construct, many federally funded surveys have only recently begun to identify sexual minorities in their data collections. In , the National Survey on Drug Use and Health NSDUH added two questions on sexual orientation, one for sexual identity and one for sexual attraction, making it the first nationally representative, comprehensive source of federally collected information on substance use and mental health issues among sexual minority adults.

Adults who self-identified in a question on sexual identity as being heterosexual or straight were defined as being in the sexual majority group. Adults who self-identified as being gay, lesbian, or bisexual in the same question were defined as being in the sexual minority group. This report presents estimates for substance use and mental health issues from the NSDUH for adults aged 18 or older by sexual identity.

Additionally, NSDUH estimates for substance use and mental health issues were compared for sexual minorities and sexual majority members among all adults and within subgroups defined by sex and by age group. For comparisons of substance use and mental health estimates, statistically significant differences are noted between the sexual majority and sexual minority groups.

Estimates from NSDUH for sexual attraction and sexual identity were comparable with estimates from other national surveys. Sexual minorities were more likely than their sexual majority counterparts to have substance use and mental health issues. The greater likelihood of sexual minority adults to have substance use and mental health issues compared with their sexual majority counterparts was observed across subgroups of adults defined by sex and by age group.

In particular, sexual minorities were more likely to use illicit drugs in the past year, to be current cigarette smokers, and to be current alcohol drinkers compared with their sexual majority counterparts. Sexual minority adults were also more likely than sexual majority adults to have substance use disorders in the past year, including disorders related to their use of alcohol, illicit drugs, marijuana, or misuse of pain relievers. Sexual minority adults were more likely than their sexual majority counterparts to need substance use treatment.

Among adults who needed substance use treatment, sexual minority adults were more likely than their sexual majority counterparts to receive substance use treatment at a specialty facility. Sexual minority adults were also more likely than their sexual majority counterparts to have a major depressive episode MDE or to have had an MDE with severe impairment in the past year. Sexual minority adults with AMI were more likely than sexual majority adults with AMI to receive mental health services during the past 12 months.

This first set of findings from NSDUH on substance use and mental health issues for adults by sexual identity is important to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration for understanding the health issues faced by sexual minorities in the United States. Additional years of data will allow changes to be tracked over time for substance use, substance use treatment, mental health issues, and the use of mental health services among sexual minority adults and will enable researchers to examine issues in greater depth for specific sexual minority subgroups.

Future research involving NSDUH and other data sources also will be useful for understanding factors associated with substance use or mental health issues among sexual minorities. Understanding how health disparities affect different facets of society has long been a goal of public health researchers and policymakers.

Research suggests that sexual minorities, such as people who identify as being lesbian, gay, or bisexual, are at greater risk for substance use and mental health issues compared with the majority population that identifies as being heterosexual or "straight.

Although sexual orientation is not a new social construct, many federally funded surveys only recently have begun to identify sexual minorities in their data collections. The U. Department of Health and Human Services' HHS's Healthy People objectives include increasing the number of population-based data systems that ask questions that identify lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations in the United States.

The addition of these questions to the NSDUH provides the first nationally representative, federally collected comprehensive information on substance use and mental health of adults by sexual orientation. Each of these components may have a different association with substance use and mental health. Because this was the first time NSDUH collected sexual orientation data, this report assesses the quality of the new NSDUH data by comparing NSDUH estimates for sexual attraction and sexual identity with estimates from other surveys that collect data for these measures.

The report also presents substance use and mental health estimates according to the sexual identity of adults. NSDUH is an annual survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older. The survey covers residents of households and individuals in noninstitutional group quarters e.

The survey excludes people with no fixed address e. NSDUH employs a stratified multistage area probability sample that is designed to be representative of both the nation as a whole and for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. NSDUH is a face-to-face household interview survey that is conducted in two phases: the screening phase and the interview phase. The interviewer conducts a screening of the eligible household with an adult resident aged 18 or older in order to determine whether zero, one, or two residents aged 12 or older should be selected for the interview.

ACASI is designed for accurate reporting of information by providing respondents with a highly private and confidential mode for responding to questions about illicit drug use, mental health, and other sensitive behaviors. NSDUH also uses computer-assisted personal interviewing CAPI , in which interviewers read less sensitive questions to respondents and enter the respondents' answers into a laptop computer. In , screening was completed at , addresses, and 68, completed interviews were obtained, including 51, interviews from adults aged 18 or older.

There were approximately 3, completed interviews from adult respondents aged 18 and older who self-identified as a sexual minority i. Weighted response rates for household screening and for interviewing were The weighted interview response rate was The NSDUH questionnaire underwent a partial redesign in to improve the quality of the NSDUH data and to address the changing needs of policymakers and researchers with regard to substance use and mental health issues.

Adding the sexual attraction and sexual identity questions was part of the NSDUH partial redesign. Details on the NSDUH questionnaire changes, reasons for the changes, and implications of the changes for NSDUH data users are included in a brief report on these questionnaire changes, in a report on the design changes for the and NSDUHs, and in the methodological summary and definitions report for This report presents estimates for adults aged 18 or older based on their sexual attraction and sexual identity.

Because is the first year that NSDUH collected these data, the estimates for sexual attraction and identity are compared with estimates from other surveys that have collected these data to assess the quality of these data.

Estimates for substance use and mental health issues are presented by adults' sexual identity. Adults who self-identified in the sexual identity question as being heterosexual or straight were defined as being in the sexual majority group. Adults who self-identified as being lesbian, gay, or bisexual were defined as being in the sexual minority group.

Combining the data with data from future years would improve the precision of estimates for subgroups of sexual minorities.

All estimates presented in this report are derived from NSDUH survey data that are subject to sampling errors. The estimates have met the criteria for statistical reliability. Estimates that do not meet these criteria for reliability have been suppressed and are not shown.

Statistically significant differences are described using terms such as "higher" or "lower. However, comparisons between sexual majority and sexual minority subpopulations for all adults aged 18 or older should be interpreted with caution because there are demographic differences in the groups being compared that are associated with substance use and mental health outcomes. In these situations, apparent differences between sexual minority and sexual majority adults could be attributable to demographic differences between the subpopulations rather than differences based on sexual identity.

For example, young adults historically have been more likely than people in other age groups to be substance users. However, to account for some of these differences, this report does examine substance use and mental health issues within specific subgroups i. To assess the quality of the sexual attraction and sexual identity data collected for the first time in the NSDUH, comparisons are presented for NSDUH estimates for sexual attraction and sexual identity with estimates from other surveys that collect data for these measures.

Even when surveys cover similar topics, comparisons of the corresponding estimates can be difficult because the surveys can often produce different results for the same measures. These differing results often reflect variations in study purpose and methodologies rather than incorrect results.

Therefore, precise agreement among the data sources is not expected. Despite any differences among surveys, comparisons can be useful in assessing data quality. For example, consistency across surveys can confirm or support conclusions about trends and patterns of use, and inconsistent results can point to areas for further study.

When surveys have large sample sizes, differences across surveys that are statistically significant also may present the same basic information from a practical standpoint.

No single source of data can fully cover all issues associated with sexual orientation, substance use, and mental health issues in the United States. Rather, each data source can contribute to a broader understanding of the health issues of sexual minorities. According to the NSDUH data, the large majority of adults aged 18 to 44 were only or mostly attracted to the opposite sex Overall, the NSDUH and the NSFG sexual attraction data were comparable, with the large majority of adults in both surveys reporting that they were only or mostly attracted to the opposite sex.

Corresponding estimates from the NSFG were Rather, the lower percentage of males reporting opposite-sex attraction was partly offset by a higher percentage of males in NSDUH who were not sure of their attraction.

Although estimated percentages for missing data are another indicator of data quality, several percentages for various types of missing data i. In addition, 0. An estimated Although the questions are relatively similar across all four surveys, there is notable variation in the response options and response option order. Despite these differences, comparison across all four surveys is still useful for assessing data quality.

Among all adults aged 18 or older, the percentage that identified as being heterosexual ranged from Among adults aged 18 to 44, Overall, the percentages of adults aged 18 or older in the GSS who reported being heterosexual were lower than the percentages in NSDUH for all adults and for males and females. In contrast, estimates for specific sexual minority groups i.

The estimated percentage of adult males in the GSS who were heterosexual when missing data were excluded For example, 3. For example, 0. An estimated 1. A small number of respondents in the GSS answered the sexual identity question as "don't know" or "refused," such that the corresponding percentages for the GSS rounded to less than 0. The goal of comparing estimates of sexual attraction and sexual identity from NSDUH with estimates from other national data sources is to aid policymakers, researchers, and other users of NSDUH data to better understand the quality of the data that are produced by national studies.

Substantial methodological differences across the data sources make it difficult to designate a particular survey's estimates as being the "best. Although there are methodological differences between NSDUH and the other data sources, the estimates of sexual attraction and sexual identity all indicate that the large majority of adults identifies themselves as being only or mostly attracted to the opposite sex and being heterosexual.

Where statistically significant differences were found, the small differences in the estimates do not raise questions about the validity of the estimates in these surveys.

The remainder of this report focuses on NSDUH data and presents substance use and mental health estimates for sexual minority and sexual majority members as defined by the responses to the NSDUH sexual identity questions. NSDUH obtains information on 10 categories of illicit drugs: marijuana; cocaine in any form, including crack; heroin; hallucinogens; inhalants; methamphetamine; and the misuse of prescription pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives.

Misuse of prescription drugs is defined as use in any way not directed by a doctor, including use without a prescription of one's own; use in greater amounts, more often, or longer than told to take a drug; or use in any other way not directed by a doctor. Estimates of "any" illicit drug use reported from NSDUH reflect the data from these 10 drug categories. NSDUH produces estimates of lifetime, past year, and past month also referred to as "current" illicit drug use. This section focuses on the use of illicit drugs in the past year i.

Among sexual minority adults, Nearly one third of sexual minority adults

Drugs to change sexual preference

Drugs to change sexual preference

Drugs to change sexual preference