What is bollywood actress-List of Bollywood actresses - Wikipedia

India bollywood , mallika sherawat. India bollywood. Please enter a valid email address. This website uses cookies to provide you with the best possible experience. By continuing to browse this site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

What is bollywood actress

What is bollywood actress

Her mother, Krishna Mukherjeewas a playback singer. Husain painted film posters early in his career; human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. Sign in. Early inthe Pakistani government permitted the import of What is bollywood actress films. The three most popular male Indian actors of the s and s were Dilip KumarRaj Kapoorand Dev Anandeach with a unique acting style.

Raven hill spankings. Get new quizzes every day. Like us on Facebook!

Search Search for: Search. Alter, Stephen. The Indian Express. She is the recipient of one Filmfare and two stardust awards. Indian films are known for their all singing all dancing formula. Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. The science-fiction film Ra. Concentrate on the What is bollywood actress don't wallow What is bollywood actress the negative. She won the beauty pageant in and she is also trained in various dance forms. Most communication from behind the scenes to on the stage is in Hindi, making it requirement 1. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, and Hindustani became the standard language of early Indian talkies. Bengali Cinema: 'An Other Nation'.

Hindi cinema , often known as Bollywood and formerly as Bombay cinema , [6] is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai formerly Bombay.

  • Bollywood is the informal name of the Hindi film industry.
  • Hindi cinema , often known as Bollywood and formerly as Bombay cinema , [6] is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai formerly Bombay.
  • This is where the term Bollywood originates.

India bollywood , mallika sherawat. India bollywood. Please enter a valid email address. This website uses cookies to provide you with the best possible experience.

By continuing to browse this site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Which Bollywood Actress are you? You hate coding its mass bunk day at college your friend does so, so that you can go out a Shah Rukh Khan movie comes out you have to study for an internal the next day.

Its called Study holiday you are sick. I don't bunk college. I take sick leave. It's a classic Kaho Na Pyar Hai. Hrithik mesmerizes me something definetly not Bollywoodish.

I hate those songs. I loved the costumes and style of Bollywood cinema in the 70s Crazy Kiya Re. That is the best song ever. I dislike dancing.

Depends on how many people go is something I avoid. I would go on a picnic with my friends instead something I have been craving for a long time cool.

Because I am actually popular among my cousins, aunties, and uncles. You don't care. It's just a seat ask her to leave because you are senior to her ask her how dare she do this to you sit next to her, and intimidate her ask your other friends to bully up on her tell the teacher about this. I can spend all I want on food, designer clothes, and what not the culture in general.

Much better than the 90s culture in India the tasty food they offer at my office change in "workplace culture" the morning free time I get. I get to have fun all day. Its action packed, stressful and fun. Otherwise I find the Internet useless. Calculating Result Start Quiz. Get new quizzes every day. Like us on Facebook! India bollywood , mallika sherawat How well do you know Mallika-e-Bollywood? India bollywood Which Bollywood Actor are you?

Get More Quizzes! Sign up!

Best Movies. It is her well-rounded approach to business and her commitment to professionalism that has helped her to amass such a large fortune in such a short period of time. Use your stardom to affect your community for good. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with spaghetti Westerns , spawning the Dacoit Western also known as the curry Western which was popular during the s. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Actress Baywatch.

What is bollywood actress

What is bollywood actress

What is bollywood actress

What is bollywood actress

What is bollywood actress

What is bollywood actress. 10. Chitrangada Singh

In more recent years, the distinction between commercial masala and parallel cinema has been gradually blurring, with an increasing number of mainstream films adopting the conventions which were once strictly associated with parallel cinema.

According to OxfordDictionaries. A number of journalists have been credited by newspapers with coining the word. According to Madhava Prasad, author of Surviving Bollywood , the term "Bollywood" was preceded by "Tollywood", which then referred to the cinema of West Bengal. The Bengali film industry, based in Tollygunge , Calcutta , was referred to as "Tollywood" in a American Cinematographer article.

In , a film presentation by Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta 's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera, Hiralal Sen , an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, The Flower of Persia Bhatavdekar showed a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay. Dadasaheb Phalke 's silent Raja Harishchandra is the first feature film made in India. By the s, the industry was producing over films per year. The s and s were tumultuous times; India was buffeted by the Great Depression , World War II , the Indian independence movement , and the violence of the Partition.

Although most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist , a number of filmmakers tackled tough social issues or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their films. The following year, he made a colour version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were cinematic staples. Before the partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan , the Bombay film industry now called Bollywood was closely linked to the Lahore film industry now the Lollywood industry of Pakistani cinema ; both produced films in Hindi-Urdu or Hindustani , the lingua franca of northern and central India.

Many actors, filmmakers and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry during the s, including actors K.

Around the same time, filmmakers and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to Bombay; as a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the Republic of India after partition. During this time period, actors such as Shantaram , Paidi Jairaj , and Motilal have made their mark. The period from the late s to the early s, after India's independence , is regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Hindi cinema. The films explored social themes, primarily dealing with working-class life in India particularly urban life in the first two examples.

Awaara presented the city as both nightmare and dream, and Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of urban life. Asif 's Mughal-e-Azam The three most popular male Indian actors of the s and s were Dilip Kumar , Raj Kapoor , and Dev Anand , each with a unique acting style.

Kapoor adopted Charlie Chaplin 's tramp ; Anand modeled himself on suave Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck and Cary Grant , and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting which predated Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando.

Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray , inspired future generations of Indian actors. While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving, the s also saw the emergence of a parallel cinema movement. Their critical acclaim and the latter's commercial success paved the way for Indian neorealism [57] and the Indian New Wave synonymous with parallel cinema.

After the social-realist film Neecha Nagar received the Palme d'Or at the inaugural Cannes Film Festival , [56] Hindi films were frequently in competition for Cannes' top prize during the s and early s and some won major prizes at the festival.

During the late s and early s, the industry was dominated by musical romance films with romantic-hero leads. By , Hindi cinema was thematically stagnant [65] and dominated by musical romance films. By the mids, romantic confections had given way to gritty, violent crime films and action films about gangsters the Bombay underworld]] and bandits dacoits.

Salim-Javed's writing and Amitabh Bachchan's acting popularised the trend with films such as Zanjeer and particularly Deewaar , a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna [49] which pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan " Bachchan ; according to Danny Boyle , Deewaar was "absolutely key to Indian cinema". The name "Bollywood" was coined during the s, [25] [26] when the conventions of commercial Bollywood films were defined.

The masala film was pioneered early in the decade by filmmaker Nasir Hussain , [20] and the Salim-Javed screenwriting duo, [79] pioneering the Bollywood- blockbuster format. A landmark of the genre was Amar Akbar Anthony , [80] [81] directed by Manmohan Desai and written by Kader Khan , and Desai continued successfully exploiting the genre.

Both genres masala and violent-crime films are represented by the blockbuster Sholay , written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with spaghetti Westerns , spawning the Dacoit Western also known as the curry Western which was popular during the s.

The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released that year. Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation during the late s with a box-office decline due to increasing violence, a decline in musical quality, and a rise in video piracy; middle-class family audiences began abandoning the cinema. Its blend of youthfulness, family entertainment, emotional intelligence and strong melodies lured audiences back to the big screen.

Known since the s as "New Bollywood", [89] contemporary Bollywood is linked to economic liberalization in India during the early s. The Khans have had successful careers since the late s, [91] and have dominated the Indian box office for three decades.

The decade marked the entrance of new performers in art and independent films, some of which were commercially successful; the most influential example was Satya , directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. Its critical and commercial success led to the emergence of a genre known as Mumbai noir: [97] urban films reflecting the city's social problems.

The s saw increased Bollywood recognition worldwide due to growing and prospering NRI and Desi communities overseas. The growth of the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era led the country's film industry to new heights in production values, cinematography and screenwriting as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation. Although the films were often not praised by critics, they were commercially successful.

Some of the films starring Aamir Khan have been credited with redefining and modernising the masala film with a distinct brand of socially conscious cinema. Most stars from the s continued successful careers into the next decade, and the s saw a new generation of popular actors in different films.

Among new conventions, female-centred films such as The Dirty Picture , Kahaani , and Queen started gaining wide financial success. Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences which have shaped Indian popular cinema: []. Sharmistha Gooptu identifies Indo-Persian - Islamic culture as a major influence.

During the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performance across northern India and established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry , and Parsi theater. Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, and Hindustani became the standard language of early Indian talkies. Films based on " Persianate adventure-romances" led to a popular genre of " Arabian Nights cinema".

India Todd Stadtman identifies several foreign influences on s commercial Bollywood masala films , including New Hollywood , Italian exploitation films , and Hong Kong martial arts cinema. Perhaps Bollywood's greatest influence has been on India's national identity, where with the rest of Indian cinema it has become part of the "Indian story".

According to economist and Bollywood biographer Meghnad Desai , "Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling India its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence". Scholar Brigitte Schulze has written that Indian films, most notably Mehboob Khan 's Mother India , played a key role in shaping the Republic of India 's national identity in the early years after independence from the British Raj ; the film conveyed a sense of Indian nationalism to urban and rural citizens alike.

Bollywood has also had a socio-political impact on Indian society, reflecting Indian politics. They channeled growing popular discontent and disillusionment and state failure to ensure welfare and well-being at a time of inflation, shortages, loss of confidence in public institutions, increasing crime [65] and the unprecedented growth of slums. Bollywood has been a significant form of soft power for India, increasing its influence and changing overseas perceptions of India.

During the s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world and was instrumental role in reviving the American musical film. Baz Luhrmann said that his musical film, Moulin Rouge! The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! Indian film composer A. Danny Boyle 's Slumdog Millionaire , which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards , was inspired by Bollywood films [72] [] and is considered an "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".

The influence of filmi may be seen in popular music worldwide. Technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra produced a electronic album, Cochin Moon , based on an experimental fusion of electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music.

The Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. Filmi music composed by A. Rahman who received two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack has frequently been sampled by other musicians, including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon , the French rap group La Caution and the American artist Ciara.

Many Asian Underground artists, particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora , have also been inspired by Bollywood music. Bollywood films are primarily musicals, and are expected to have catchy song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers.

Indian audiences expect value for money, and a good film is generally referred to as paisa vasool , literally "money's worth". These are called masala films , after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Like masalas , they are a mixture of action, comedy and romance; most have heroes who can fight off villains single-handedly.

Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic , frequently using formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers, angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, political corruption, kidnapping, villains, kind-hearted courtesans , long-lost relatives and siblings, reversals of fortune and serendipity. Parallel cinema films, in and outside Bollywood, tended to be less popular at the box office. A large Indian diaspora in English-speaking countries and increased Western influence in India have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood.

According to film critic Lata Khubchandani, "Our earliest films Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures.

Bollywood employs people from throughout India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, stage actors and ordinary people come to Mumbai with the hope of becoming a star. As in Hollywood, very few succeed.

Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed. Very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, although many have tried. Bollywood can be insular, and relatives of film-industry figures have an edge in obtaining coveted roles in films or being part of a film crew.

However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce, and film-industry scions will falter if they do not succeed at the box office. Film scripts known as dialogues in Indian English and their song lyrics are often written by different people.

Scripts are usually written in an unadorned Hindi-Urdu, known as Hindustani , which would be understood by the largest possible audience. Salim-Javed wrote in Urdu script , which was then transcribed by an assistant into Devanagari script so Hindi readers could read the Urdu dialogues. Some films have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or archaic Urdu in medieval historical films.

In her book, The Cinematic ImagiNation , Jyotika Virdi wrote about the presence of Urdu in Hindi films: "Urdu is often used in film titles, screenplay, lyrics, the language of love, war, and martyrdom. It is true that many Urdu words have survived and have become part of Hindi cinema's popular vocabulary. But that is as far as it goes For the most part, popular Hindi cinema has forsaken the florid Urdu that was part of its extravagance and retained a 'residual' Urdu". Contemporary mainstream films also use English; according to the article "Bollywood Audiences Editorial", "English has begun to challenge the ideological work done by Urdu.

The blend of Hindi, Urdu and English sometimes heard in modern Bollywood films, known as Hinglish , has become increasingly common. Cinematic language in dialogues or lyrics is often melodramatic, invoking God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics especially in older films frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with a number of Persian loanwords.

Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, and the lyricist and composer may be seen as a team. This phenomenon has been compared to the pairs of American composers and songwriters who created classic Broadway musicals. Sound in early Bollywood films was usually not recorded on location sync sound. It was usually created or re-created in the studio, [] with the actors speaking their lines in the studio and sound effects added later; this created synchronisation problems.

Lagaan was filmed with sync sound, [] and several Bollywood films have recorded on-location sound since then. Bollywood film music is called filmi from the Hindi "of films".

Although most actors are good dancers, few are also singers; a notable exception was Kishore Kumar , who starred in several major films during the s while having a rewarding career as a playback singer. Saigal , Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were known as singers and actors, and some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves. Songs can make and break a film, determining whether it will be a flop or a hit: "Few films without successful musical tracks, and even fewer without any songs and dances, succeed".

Global trends such as salsa, pop and hip hop have influenced the music heard in Bollywood films. Playback singers are featured in the opening credits, and have fans who will see an otherwise-lackluster film to hear their favourites. Kishore Kumar and Mohammed Rafi have been considered the finest singers of Bollywood songs, followed by Lata Mangeshkar who has recorded thousands of songs for Indian films in her six-decade career.

Composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Remixing of film songs with modern rhythms is common, and producers may release remixed versions of some of their films' songs with the films' soundtrack albums. Dancing in Bollywood films, especially older films, is modeled on Indian dance: classical dance, dances of north-Indian courtesans tawaif or folk dances. In modern films, Indian dance blends with Western dance styles as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals; Western pop and classical-dance numbers are commonly seen side-by-side in the same film.

The hero or heroine often performs with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films contain unrealistically-quick shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song.

If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in natural surroundings or architecturally-grand settings. Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the film.

A song may be worked into the plot, so a character has a reason to sing. It may externalise a character's thoughts, or presage an event in the film such as two characters falling in love. The songs are often referred to as a "dream sequence", with things happening which would not normally happen in the real world.

Song and dance scenes were often filmed in Kashmir but, due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the s, [] they have been shot in western Europe particularly Switzerland and Austria. Bollywood producers have been releasing a film's soundtrack as tapes or CDs before the film's release, hoping that the music will attract audiences; a soundtrack is often more popular than its film. Some producers also release music videos, usually but not always with a song from the film.

The science-fiction film Ra. As Western films and television are more widely distributed in India, there is increased pressure for Bollywood films to reach the same production levels particularly in action and special effects. Recent Bollywood films, like Krrish , have employed international technicians such as Hong Kong-based action choreographer Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility of professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, have seen an increase in action and science-fiction films.

Indian producers have also obtained funding for big-budget films shot in India, such as Lagaan and Devdas. Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Although Indian banks and financial institutions had been forbidden from lending to film studios, the ban has been lifted. Mumbai organised-crime hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan , a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan , in January In , the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the film was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld.

Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before they are released in cinemas. In addition to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst portions of the Indian diaspora. Bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Pakistani government has banned their sale, distribution and telecast.

Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by small cable-TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores, run by members of the Indian diaspora in the US and the UK, regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance; consumer copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to industry losses. Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market.

In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now, fewer do. Most Bollywood producers make money, however, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue including the sale of ancillary rights. There are increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly being noticed.

As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. In , Bollywood sold 3. A number of Indian artists hand-painted movie billboards and posters.

Husain painted film posters early in his career; human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. Old hand-painted posters, once considered ephemera , are collectible folk art.

Releasing film music, or music videos, before a film's release may be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help attract audiences. Most bigger-budget films have a websites on which audiences can view trailers, stills and information on the story, cast, and crew.

Product placement , used in Hollywood, is also common in Bollywood. Bollywood's increasing use of international settings such as Switzerland, London, Paris, New York, Mexico, Brazil and Singapore does not necessarily represent the people and cultures of those locales. Contrary to these spaces and geographies being filmed as they are, they are actually Indianised by adding Bollywood actors and Hindi speaking extras to them. While immersing in Bollywood films, viewers get to see their local experiences duplicated in different locations around the world.

According to Shakuntala Rao, "Media representation can depict India's shifting relation with the world economy, but must retain its 'Indianness' in moments of dynamic hybridity"; [] "Indianness" cultural identity poses a problem with Bollywood's popularity among varied diaspora audiences, but gives its domestic audience a sense of uniqueness from other immigrant groups. The Filmfare Awards are some of the most prominent awards given to Hindi films in India.

Modeled on the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences ' poll-based merit format, individuals may vote in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in The National Film Awards were also introduced in The awards are made at an annual ceremony presided over by the president of India.

Unlike the Filmfare Awards, which are chosen by the public and a committee of experts, the National Film Awards are decided by a government panel. Other awards ceremonies for Hindi films in India are the Screen Awards begun in and the Stardust Awards , which began in In addition to their popularity among the Indian diaspora from Nigeria and Senegal to Egypt and Russia , generations of non-Indians have grown up with Bollywood.

Bollywood films are also popular in Pakistan , Bangladesh , and Nepal , where Hindi-Urdu is widely understood. Many Pakistanis understand Hindi, due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu.

Exceptions to the ban were made for a few films, such as the colorized re-release of Mughal-e-Azam and Taj Mahal in Early in , the Pakistani government permitted the import of 16 films. Although it is opposed by nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry, it is embraced by cinema owners who are making a profit after years of low receipts. The most popular actress is Madhuri Dixit ; [] at India-Pakistan cricket matches during the s, Pakistani fans chanted " Madhuri dedo, Kashmir lelo!

The films are also popular in Afghanistan due to its proximity to the Indian subcontinent and their cultural similarities, particularly in music. Bollywood films are popular in Southeast Asia , particularly in maritime Southeast Asia. The three Khans are very popular in the Malay world , including Indonesia , Malaysia , and Singapore. The films are also fairly popular in Thailand. India has cultural ties with Indonesia, and Bollywood films were introduced to the country at the end of World War II in The "angry young man" films of Amitabh Bachchan and Salim-Javed were popular during the s and s before Bollywood's popularity began gradually declining in the s and s.

It experienced an Indonesian revival with the release of Shah Rukh Khan's Kuch Kuch Hota Hai in , which was a bigger box-office success in the country than Titanic Mil Gaya all , and Veer-Zaara The latter sparked a two-year boom in Indian films after its release, [] with Dil Se.. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani , Awaara , and Do Bigha Zamin were successful in China during the s and s, and remain popular with their original audience.

Few Indian films were commercially successful in the country during the s and s, among them Tahir Hussain 's Caravan , Noorie and Disco Dancer. Rahman to score his Warriors of Heaven and Earth When 3 Idiots was released in China, China was the world's 15th-largest film market partly due to its widespread pirate DVD distribution at the time. The pirate market introduced the film to Chinese audiences, however, and it became a cult hit.

According to the Douban film-review site, 3 Idiots is China's 12th-most-popular film of all time; only one domestic Chinese film Farewell My Concubine ranks higher, and Aamir Khan acquired a large Chinese fan base as a result. Yash Raj Films ' Salaam Namaste , the first Indian film shot entirely in Australia, was the most successful Bollywood film of in that country.

India , and Singh Is Kinng Indian films were more popular in the Soviet Union than Hollywood films [] [] and, sometimes, domestic Soviet films. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses.

The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union.

The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet film-distribution system, Hollywood filled the void in the Russian film market and Bollywood's market share shrank.

In Poland , Shah Rukh Khan has a large following. Bollywood films are often covered in Gazeta Wyborcza , formerly Poland's largest newspaper. Hindi films have become popular in Arab countries , [] and imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic when they are released. Bollywood has progressed in Israel since the early s, with channels dedicated to Indian films on cable television; [] MBC Bollywood and Zee Aflam show Hindi movies and serials. In Egypt, Bollywood films were popular during the s and s.

In , however, they were restricted to a handful of films by the Egyptian government. Bollywood movies are regularly screened in Dubai cinemas, and Bollywood is becoming popular in Turkey; Barfi! Bollywood films are not influential in most of South America, although its culture and dance is recognised.

Due to significant South Asian diaspora communities in Suriname [] and Guyana , however, Hindi-language movies are popular. Hindi films were originally distributed to some parts of Africa by Lebanese businessmen, and Mother India continued to be screened in Nigeria decades after its release. Indian movies have influenced Hausa clothing, songs have been covered by Hausa singers, and stories have influenced Nigerian novelists.

Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Nigeria's Northern Region , and posters of Indian films hang on the walls of tailoring shops and mechanics' garages. Unlike Europe and North America, where Indian films cater to the expatriate marke, Bollywood films became popular in West Africa despite the lack of a significant Indian audience.

One possible explanation is cultural similarity: the wearing of turbans, animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, and traditional wedding celebrations. Within Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women; Hollywood movies were seen as having "no shame". In Indian movies, women are modestly dressed; men and women rarely kiss and there is no nudity , so the films are said to "have culture" which Hollywood lacks. The latter "don't base themselves on the problems of the people"; Indian films are based on socialist values and the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism.

Indian movies permitted a new youth culture without "becoming Western. In South Africa , film imports from India were watched by black and Indian audiences. Bollywood, however, seems to be diminishing in popularity in Africa. New Bollywood films are more sexually explicit and violent. Nigerian viewers observed that older films from the s and s had more culture and were less Westernised. The first Indian film to be released in the Western world and receive mainstream attention was Aan , directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar and Nimmi.

It was subtitled in 17 languages and released in 28 countries, [] including the United Kingdom , [] the United States , and France. Many Bollywood films have been commercially successful in the United Kingdom. Bollywood is also appreciated in France, Germany , the Netherlands , [] and Scandinavia. Pressured by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to plagiarise.

Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films including Hollywood and other Asian films without acknowledging the source. Before the s, plagiarism occurred with impunity. Copyright enforcement was lax in India, and few actors or directors saw an official contract. Audiences may not have been aware of plagiarism, since many in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. Organisations such as the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between filmmakers and industry professionals in India and the European Union.

A commonly-reported justification for plagiarism in Bollywood is that cautious producers want to remake popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. Although screenwriters generally produce original scripts, many are rejected due to uncertainty about whether a film will be successful. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their Diet Cokes and also their attitude.

The American way of life is creeping into our culture. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere". Although very few cases of film-copyright violations have been taken to court because of a slow legal process, [] the makers of Partner and Zinda were targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films: Hitch and Oldboy.

The Pakistani Qawwali musician Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan had a big impact on Bollywood music, inspiring numerous Indian musicians working in Bollywood, especially during the s. However, there were many instances of Indian music directors plagiarising Khan's music to produce hit filmi songs.

He should at least respect my religious songs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Hindi film industry. For the entire film culture of India, see Cinema of India. For the tree species, see Bollywood tree.

Not to be confused with Hollywood. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 80 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. April This article may contain an excessive number of citations. Please consider removing references to unnecessary or disreputable sources , merging citations where possible, or, if necessary, flagging the content for deletion.

April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Hindi language film industry. Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore Indian epic poetry Vedic mythology Buddhist mythology. Architecture Sculpture Painting. Indian poetry. Music and performing arts. Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites.

Flag Coat of arms. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Indian cinema. Discuss April The Salim-Javed screenwriting duo, consisting of Salim Khan left and Javed Akhtar , revolutionized Indian cinema in the s [64] and are considered Bollywood's greatest screenwriters.

Shah Rukh Khan , one of the " Three Khans ", in He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s. Aamir Khan , one of the "Three Khans", in He has been the most successful Indian actor since the late s. See also: Muslim social. See also: Bombay Hindi and Tapori word. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Filmi-ghazal , Filmi qawwali , Hindi dance music , and List of singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema.

See also: List of highest-grossing Indian films in overseas markets and List of highest-grossing Indian films. Bollywood portal India portal Film portal. Retrieved 13 August The Numbers. Film Federation of India. Retrieved 21 April The Hindu. Retrieved 8 April Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press.

The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 November Frommer's India. How Hollywood works. Jha; Subhash The Essential Guide to Bollywood. Roli Books. Business Week. Creativity at Work. Copenhagen Business School. National Science and Media Museum. Oxford University Press. Huma Qureshi 4 Isha Koppikar 5 Divya Bharti 6 Babita 7 Moon Moon Sen 8 Malaika Arora 9 Prachi Desai 10 Madhoo 11 Zarine Khan 12 Minisha Lamba 13 Lara Dutta 14 Ayesha Takia 15 Nagma 16 Parineeti Chopra 17 Reema Lagoo 18 Suraiya 19 Pooja Bhatt 20 Reema Sen 21

Bollywood - Wikipedia

Hindi cinema , often known as Bollywood and formerly as Bombay cinema , [6] is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai formerly Bombay.

The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and " Hollywood ". The industry is related to Cinema of South India and other Indian film industries, making up Indian Cinema — the world's largest by number of feature films produced.

Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in film production, with an annual output of 1, feature films in Bollywood is its largest film producer, with Hindi films produced in The most popular commercial genre in Bollywood since the s has been the masala film , which freely mixes different genres including action , comedy , romance , drama and melodrama along with musical numbers. Alongside commercial masala films, a distinctive genre of art films known as parallel cinema has also existed, presenting realistic content and avoidance of musical numbers.

In more recent years, the distinction between commercial masala and parallel cinema has been gradually blurring, with an increasing number of mainstream films adopting the conventions which were once strictly associated with parallel cinema.

According to OxfordDictionaries. A number of journalists have been credited by newspapers with coining the word.

According to Madhava Prasad, author of Surviving Bollywood , the term "Bollywood" was preceded by "Tollywood", which then referred to the cinema of West Bengal. The Bengali film industry, based in Tollygunge , Calcutta , was referred to as "Tollywood" in a American Cinematographer article. In , a film presentation by Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta 's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera, Hiralal Sen , an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, The Flower of Persia Bhatavdekar showed a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay.

Dadasaheb Phalke 's silent Raja Harishchandra is the first feature film made in India. By the s, the industry was producing over films per year. The s and s were tumultuous times; India was buffeted by the Great Depression , World War II , the Indian independence movement , and the violence of the Partition.

Although most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist , a number of filmmakers tackled tough social issues or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their films. The following year, he made a colour version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were cinematic staples.

Before the partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan , the Bombay film industry now called Bollywood was closely linked to the Lahore film industry now the Lollywood industry of Pakistani cinema ; both produced films in Hindi-Urdu or Hindustani , the lingua franca of northern and central India.

Many actors, filmmakers and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry during the s, including actors K.

Around the same time, filmmakers and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to Bombay; as a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the Republic of India after partition. During this time period, actors such as Shantaram , Paidi Jairaj , and Motilal have made their mark. The period from the late s to the early s, after India's independence , is regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Hindi cinema.

The films explored social themes, primarily dealing with working-class life in India particularly urban life in the first two examples. Awaara presented the city as both nightmare and dream, and Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of urban life.

Asif 's Mughal-e-Azam The three most popular male Indian actors of the s and s were Dilip Kumar , Raj Kapoor , and Dev Anand , each with a unique acting style. Kapoor adopted Charlie Chaplin 's tramp ; Anand modeled himself on suave Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck and Cary Grant , and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting which predated Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando.

Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray , inspired future generations of Indian actors. While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving, the s also saw the emergence of a parallel cinema movement.

Their critical acclaim and the latter's commercial success paved the way for Indian neorealism [57] and the Indian New Wave synonymous with parallel cinema. After the social-realist film Neecha Nagar received the Palme d'Or at the inaugural Cannes Film Festival , [56] Hindi films were frequently in competition for Cannes' top prize during the s and early s and some won major prizes at the festival.

During the late s and early s, the industry was dominated by musical romance films with romantic-hero leads. By , Hindi cinema was thematically stagnant [65] and dominated by musical romance films. By the mids, romantic confections had given way to gritty, violent crime films and action films about gangsters the Bombay underworld]] and bandits dacoits.

Salim-Javed's writing and Amitabh Bachchan's acting popularised the trend with films such as Zanjeer and particularly Deewaar , a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna [49] which pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan " Bachchan ; according to Danny Boyle , Deewaar was "absolutely key to Indian cinema". The name "Bollywood" was coined during the s, [25] [26] when the conventions of commercial Bollywood films were defined.

The masala film was pioneered early in the decade by filmmaker Nasir Hussain , [20] and the Salim-Javed screenwriting duo, [79] pioneering the Bollywood- blockbuster format. A landmark of the genre was Amar Akbar Anthony , [80] [81] directed by Manmohan Desai and written by Kader Khan , and Desai continued successfully exploiting the genre.

Both genres masala and violent-crime films are represented by the blockbuster Sholay , written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with spaghetti Westerns , spawning the Dacoit Western also known as the curry Western which was popular during the s. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released that year. Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation during the late s with a box-office decline due to increasing violence, a decline in musical quality, and a rise in video piracy; middle-class family audiences began abandoning the cinema.

Its blend of youthfulness, family entertainment, emotional intelligence and strong melodies lured audiences back to the big screen. Known since the s as "New Bollywood", [89] contemporary Bollywood is linked to economic liberalization in India during the early s.

The Khans have had successful careers since the late s, [91] and have dominated the Indian box office for three decades. The decade marked the entrance of new performers in art and independent films, some of which were commercially successful; the most influential example was Satya , directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap.

Its critical and commercial success led to the emergence of a genre known as Mumbai noir: [97] urban films reflecting the city's social problems. The s saw increased Bollywood recognition worldwide due to growing and prospering NRI and Desi communities overseas.

The growth of the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era led the country's film industry to new heights in production values, cinematography and screenwriting as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation. Although the films were often not praised by critics, they were commercially successful. Some of the films starring Aamir Khan have been credited with redefining and modernising the masala film with a distinct brand of socially conscious cinema.

Most stars from the s continued successful careers into the next decade, and the s saw a new generation of popular actors in different films. Among new conventions, female-centred films such as The Dirty Picture , Kahaani , and Queen started gaining wide financial success. Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences which have shaped Indian popular cinema: [].

Sharmistha Gooptu identifies Indo-Persian - Islamic culture as a major influence. During the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performance across northern India and established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry , and Parsi theater.

Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, and Hindustani became the standard language of early Indian talkies. Films based on " Persianate adventure-romances" led to a popular genre of " Arabian Nights cinema". India Todd Stadtman identifies several foreign influences on s commercial Bollywood masala films , including New Hollywood , Italian exploitation films , and Hong Kong martial arts cinema.

Perhaps Bollywood's greatest influence has been on India's national identity, where with the rest of Indian cinema it has become part of the "Indian story". According to economist and Bollywood biographer Meghnad Desai , "Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling India its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence".

Scholar Brigitte Schulze has written that Indian films, most notably Mehboob Khan 's Mother India , played a key role in shaping the Republic of India 's national identity in the early years after independence from the British Raj ; the film conveyed a sense of Indian nationalism to urban and rural citizens alike.

Bollywood has also had a socio-political impact on Indian society, reflecting Indian politics. They channeled growing popular discontent and disillusionment and state failure to ensure welfare and well-being at a time of inflation, shortages, loss of confidence in public institutions, increasing crime [65] and the unprecedented growth of slums.

Bollywood has been a significant form of soft power for India, increasing its influence and changing overseas perceptions of India. During the s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world and was instrumental role in reviving the American musical film.

Baz Luhrmann said that his musical film, Moulin Rouge! The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! Indian film composer A. Danny Boyle 's Slumdog Millionaire , which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards , was inspired by Bollywood films [72] [] and is considered an "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".

The influence of filmi may be seen in popular music worldwide. Technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra produced a electronic album, Cochin Moon , based on an experimental fusion of electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music. The Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. Filmi music composed by A. Rahman who received two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack has frequently been sampled by other musicians, including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon , the French rap group La Caution and the American artist Ciara.

Many Asian Underground artists, particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora , have also been inspired by Bollywood music. Bollywood films are primarily musicals, and are expected to have catchy song-and-dance numbers woven into the script.

A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. Indian audiences expect value for money, and a good film is generally referred to as paisa vasool , literally "money's worth".

These are called masala films , after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Like masalas , they are a mixture of action, comedy and romance; most have heroes who can fight off villains single-handedly. Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic , frequently using formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers, angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, political corruption, kidnapping, villains, kind-hearted courtesans , long-lost relatives and siblings, reversals of fortune and serendipity.

Parallel cinema films, in and outside Bollywood, tended to be less popular at the box office. A large Indian diaspora in English-speaking countries and increased Western influence in India have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood. According to film critic Lata Khubchandani, "Our earliest films Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures. Bollywood employs people from throughout India.

It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, stage actors and ordinary people come to Mumbai with the hope of becoming a star. As in Hollywood, very few succeed.

Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed. Very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, although many have tried. Bollywood can be insular, and relatives of film-industry figures have an edge in obtaining coveted roles in films or being part of a film crew.

What is bollywood actress

What is bollywood actress